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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
which drops saliva.1 And when it is taught, 'One may take [fodder] from before an animal that is not fastidious', it refers to an ass, which is not particular about what it eats;2 'and put [it] before an animal that is fastidious,' to a cow, which is particular about what it eats.3
MISHNAH. ONE MUST NOT MOVE STRAW [LYING] UPON A BED WITH HIS HAND, YET HE MAY MOVE IT WITH HIS BODY. BUT IF IT IS FODDER FOR ANIMALS, OR A PILLOW OR A SHEET WAS UPON IT BEFORE NIGHTFALL, HE MAY MOVE IT WITH HIS HAND.4 ONE MAY UNDO A HOUSEHOLDER'S CLOTHES PRESS,5 BUT NOT FORCE IT DOWN.6 BUT A LAUNDERER'S [PRESS] MAY NOT BE TOUCHED.7 R. JUDAH SAID: IF IT WAS UNDONE BEFORE THE SABBATH, ONE MAY UNFASTEN THE WHOLE AND REMOVE IT.
GEMARA. R. Nahman said: A radish, if it is the right way up, it is permitted; if it is reversed, it is forbidden.8 R. Adda b. Abba said, The scholars9 said, We learnt [a Mishnah] in disagreement with R. Nahman: ONE MUST NOT MOVE STRAW [LYING] UPON A BED WITH HIS HAND, YET HE MAY MOVE IT WITH HIS BODY. BUT IF IT IS FODDER FOR ANIMALS, OR A PILLOW ON A SHEET WAS UPON IT BEFORE NIGHTFALL, HE MAY MOVE IT WITH HIS HAND: this proves, indirect10 handling is not designated handling;11 this proves it.
Rab Judah12 said: To crush peppergrains one by one with a knife-handle is permitted; in twos, it is forbidden.13 Raba said: Since he does it in a different way,14 crushing even many [is permitted] too.
Rab Judah also said: If one bathes in water, he should first dry himself15 and then ascend, lest he come to carry16 four cubits in a karmelith.17 If so, when he enters18 too, his force propels the water four cubits,19 which is forbidden? — They did not prohibit one's force in a karmelith.
Abaye — others state, Rab Judah — said: One may scrape off the clay from his foot on to the ground, but not on to a wall. Said Raba, Why not on to a wall? because It looks like building?20 but it is ignorant building?21 Rather said Raba: He may scrape it off on to a wall but not on to the ground, lest he come to level holes. It was stated, Mar son of Rabina said: Both are forbidden; R. Papa said: Both are permitted. According to Mar son of Rabina, whereon shall he scrape it? He scrapes it on a plank.22
Raba also said: One must not bend sideways a cask [which is standing] on the ground,25 lest he come to level hollows.
Raba also said: One must not squeeze a cloth stopper into the mouth of a jug, lest he come to wring [it] out.
R. Kahana said: As for the clay [mire] on one's garment, he may rub off from the inside but not from the outside.26 An objection is raised: One may scrape off the clay from his shoes with the back of a knife, and that which is on one's garment he may scrape off with [even]27 his finger nail, providing that he does not rub it. Surely that means that he must not rub it at all? — No: he must not rub it from the outside but only from the inside.
R. Abbahu said in R. Eleazar's name in R. Jannai's name: A new shoe may be scraped, but not an old one.
With what does one scrape it? — Said R. Abbahu: With the back of a knife. A certain old man said to him, Delete your [teaching] on account of what R. Hiyya taught: One must not scrape either a new shoe or all old one, nor must he rub his foot with oil while it is in the shoe or sandal;1 but one may rub his foot with oil and place it in his shoe or sandal; he may also oil his whole body and roll himself on a leather spread without fear.2 R. Hisda said: They learnt this only [if his intention is] to polish it;3 but [if it is] to dress it,4 it is forbidden. 'To dress it'? surely that is obvious? Moreover, does any one permit it [if he desires] to polish it? — Rather if stated, It was thus stated: R. Hisda said: They learnt this only of a quantity [sufficient merely] to polish it; but [if] the quantity5 [is sufficient] to dress it, it is forbidden.
Our Rabbis taught: A small[-footed] man must not go out with the shoe of a large[-footed] man,6 but he may go out with [too] large a shirt. A woman must not go out with a gaping shoe,7 nor may she perform halizah therewith; yet if she does perform halizah therewith, the halizah is valid. And one must not go out with a new shoe: of what shoe did they rule this? Of a woman's shoe.8 Bar Kappara taught: They learnt [this] only where she had not gone out therein one hour before nightfall;9 but if she went out therein on the eve of the Sabbath, it is permitted.
One [Baraitha] taught: A shoe may be removed from its last; while another taught: It may not be removed. There is no difficulty: one is [according to] R. Eliezer, the other [according to] the Rabbis. For we learnt: If a shoe is on the last, — R. Eliezer declares it clean, while the Sages declare it is unclean.10 This is well according to Raba, who maintained: It is permitted [to handle] an article whose function is for a forbidden purpose, whether it is required itself or for its place: then it is correct. But on Abaye's view that it may be [handled] for itself, but it is forbidden [to handle it] when its place is required,11 what can be said?12 — We treat here of one [a shoe] that is loose [on the last].13 For it was taught, R. Judah said: If it is loose. it is permitted [to remove it]. The reason [then why it is permitted] is because it is loose. But if it is not loose it is not [permitted]? This is well on Abaye's view that an article whose function is for a forbidden purpose may be [handled] when required for itself, but not when its place [only] is required: then it is correct. But according to Raba, who maintains, it is permitted [to handle it] both when required for itself or when its place is required, what can be said: [for] why particularly a loose [shoe], — even if not loose too it is thus? That14 represents R. Judah's view in R. Eliezer's name. For it was taught: R. Judah said in R. Eliezer's name: If it is loose, it is permitted.15
MISHNAH. A MAN MAY TAKE UP HIS SON WHILE HE HAS A STONE IN HIS HAND OR A BASKET WITH A STONE IN IT; AND UNCLEAN TERUMAH MAY BE HANDLED TOGETHER WITH CLEAN [TERUMAH] OR WITH HULLIN.16 R. JUDAH SAID: ONE MAY ALSO REMOVE17 THE ADMIXTURE [OF TERUMAH IN HULLIN] WHEN ONE [PART IS NEUTRALIZED] IN A HUNDRED [PARTS].18
GEMARA. Raba said: If one carries out19 a live child with a purse hanging around its neck, he is culpable on account of the purse; a dead child with a purse hanging around its neck, he is not culpable. 'A live child with a purse hanging around its neck, he is culpable on account of the purse. But let him be culpable on account of the child? — Raba agrees with R. Nathan, who maintained, A living [person] carries himself.20 But let the purse be counted as nought in relation to the child? Did we not learn, [If one carries out] a living person in a bed, he is not culpable, even in respect of the bed, because the bed is subsidiary to him? — A bed is accounted as nought in relation to a living person,21 but a purse is not accounted as nought in relation to the child.
'A dead child with a purse hanging around its neck, he is not culpable.' But let him be culpable on account of the child? Raba agrees with R. Simeon, who maintained: One is not culpable on account of a labour unrequired per se.22
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