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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
Because it is only done for colouring.1
It was stated: If mustard grain is kneaded on Sabbath eve, — on the morrow, Rab said: One must crush [dissolve] it2 'with a utensil, but not by hand.3 Said Samuel to him: 'By hand'! Does one then crush it every day by hand — is it asses' food? Rather said Samuel: He must crush it by hand, but not with a utensil. It was stated, R. Eleazar said: Both the one and the other are forbidden; while R. Johanan ruled: Both the one and the other are permitted. Abaye and Raba both say: The halachah is not as R. Johanan. R. Johanan [subsequently] adopted R. Eleazar's thesis, while R. Eleazar adopted Samuel's thesis. Abaye and Raba both said [then]: The halachah is as R. Johanan.
Abaye's mother4 prepared [it] for him, but he would not eat [it]. Ze'iri's wife prepared [some] for R. Hiyya b. Ashi, but he would not eat [it]. Said she to him, 'I prepared it for your teacher [Ze'iri] and he ate, whilst you do not eat!'
Raba b. Shaba said: I was standing before Rabina and I stirred [the mustard] for him with the smooth [inner] part of the garlic, and he ate it.
Mar Zutra said: The law is not as all these opinions. but as the following which was stated; If mustard is kneaded on the eve of the Sabbath, on the morrow one may crush [dissolve] it both by hand or with a utensil; he may pour honey in it, yet he must not beat it up but may mix them. If cress was chopped up on the eve of the Sabbath, on the morrow one may put oil and vinegar into it and add ammitha5 thereto; and he must not beat then, up but may mix them. If garlic was crushed on the eve of the Sabbath, on the morrow one may put beans and grits therein, yet he must not pound them, but may mix them, and one may add ammitha to it. What is ammitha? — Ninya,6 Abaye observed: This proves that ninya is good for [seasoning] cress.
AND ENOMLIN MAY BE PREPARED ON THE SABBATH. Our Rabbis taught: Enomlin may be prepared on the Sabbath but aluntith may not be prepared on the Sabbath. What is enomlin and what is aluntith? — Enomlin is [a mixture of] wine, honey, and pepper. Aluntith is [a mixture of] old wine, clear water and balsam, which is prepared as a cooling [draught] in the baths.7 R. Joseph said: I Once entered the baths after Mar 'Ukba; on leaving I was offered a cup of [such] wine, and I experienced [a cooling sensation] from the hair of my head [right] down to my toe nails; and had I drunk another glass I would have been afraid lest it be deducted from my merits in the future world.8 But Mar 'Ukba drank it every day? Mar 'Ukba was different, because he was accustomed to it.
MISHNAH. HILTITH9 MUST NOT BE DISSOLVED IN WARM WATER,10 BUT IT MAY BE PUT INTO VINEGAR; AND ONE MUST NOT CAUSE LEEKS TO FLOAT,11 NOR RUB THEM;12 BUT THEY MAY BE PUT INTO A SIEVE13 OR A BASKET.14 STUBBLE MAY NOT BE SIFTED THROUGH A SIEVE, NOR PLACED ON AN EMINENCE, FOR THE CHAFF TO DROP DOWN; BUT ONE MAY TAKE IT UP IN A SIEVE AND PUT IT INTO THE MANGER.15
GEMARA. The scholars asked: What if one does dissolve [it]? R. Adda of Naresh16 maintained before R. Joseph: If one dissolves [it] he is liable to a sin-offering. Said Abaye to him: If so, if one soaks17 raw meat in water, is he too liable?18 Rather said Abaye: It is a Rabbinical [prohibition], that one should not act as he does during the week. R. Johanan asked R. Jannai: May hiltith be dissolved in cold water? It is forbidden. replied he. But we learnt: HILTITH MUST NOT BE DISSOLVED IN WARM WATER, implying that it is permitted in cold water? If so,19 what is the difference between you and me? Our Mishnah is [the opinion of] an individual. For it was taught: Hiltith may be dissolved neither in warm nor in cold water; R. Jose said: In warm water it is forbidden; in cold it is permitted.
What is it made for? [As a remedy] for asthma.20 R. Aha b.Joseph suffered with asthma. He went to Mar 'Ukba, [who] advised him, 'Go and drink three [gold denar] weights of hiltith on three days.' He went and drank it on Thursday and Friday. The following morning he went and asked [about it] in the Beth Hamidrash.21 Said they to him, The school of R. Adda-others state, the school of Mar son of R. Adda recited: One may drink a kab or two kabs without fear.22 About drinking, said he, I do not ask.23 My question is, What about dissolving it?24 R. Hiyya b. Abin observed to them: This case happened to me, and I went and consulted R. Adda b. Ahabah. but he could not inform me. [So] I went and asked R. Huna, and he answered me, Thus did Rab say: He may dissolve [it] in cold water and place it in the sun. Is this [only] according to him who permits [dissolving]? [No.] It is even according to him who forbids [it]: that is only if one had not drunk at all; but here, since he had drunk [it] on Thursday and Friday, if he would not drink it on the Sabbath he would be endangered.
R. Aha b. Joseph was walking along, leaning25 on the shoulder of R. Nahman b. Isaac, his sister's son. When we reach R. Safra's house, lead me in, he requested.26 When they arrived [there] he led him in. How about rubbing [the stiffness out of] linen [washing]?27 asked he; is his intention to soften the linen, and it is permitted, or perhaps his intention is to make it whiter,28 which is forbidden? — His intention is to soften it, replied he, and it is permitted. When he went out he [R. Nahman] enquired, What did you ask him? I asked him, What about rubbing linen on the Sabbath, replied he, and he answered me, It is permitted. But let the Master inquire about a scarf?29 I do not ask about a scarf, because I asked it of R. Huna and he decided it' for me. Then let the Master solve this from a scarf? — There it looks like making it whiter,30 but here it does not look like making it whiter.
R. Hisda said: As for linen,
R. Hisda said: A bunch of vegetables, if fit as food for animals, may be handled; if not, it is forbidden.
R. Kattina said: He who stands in the middle of a [marital] bed is as though he stood on a woman's stomach.5 But this is incorrect.
R. Hisda also said: When a scholar buys vegetables, let him buy long ones, for one bunch is like another [in thickness], and so the length [comes] of itself.6
R. Hisda also said: When a scholar buys canes,7 let him buy long ones; one load is like another, so the length [comes] of itself.
R. Hisda also said: When a scholar has but little bread, let him not eat vegetables, because it whets [the appetite]. R. Hisda also said: I ate vegetables neither when poor nor when rich.8 When poor, because it whets [the appetite]; when rich, because I say, Where the vegetables are to enter, let fish and meat enter!9
R. Hisda also said: If a scholar has but little bread he should not divide [his meal].10 R. Hisda also said: If a scholar has but little bread he should break [bread].11 What is the reason? Because he does not do it generously.12 R. Hisda also said: Formerly I would not break [bread] until I had passed my hand through the whole of my wallet and found there as much as I needed.
R. Hisda also said: When one can eat barley bread but eats wheaten bread he violates, thou shalt not destroy.13 R. Papa said: When one can drink beer but drinks wine, he violates, thou shalt not destroy.14 But this is incorrect: Thou shalt not destroy, as applied to one's own person, stands higher.15
R. Hisda also said: When a scholar has no oil, let him wash with pit water.16
R. Hisda also said: If a scholar buys raw meat he should buy the neck, because it contains three kinds of meat.
R. Hisda also said: When a scholar buys linen [underwear], he should buy it from the Nehar Abba17 and wash18 it every thirty days, and I guarantee that it will relieve him [from buying another] for a full year. What does kitonitha [underwear] mean? Kitta na'ah [fine flax].19
R. Hisda also said: A scholar should not sit upon a new mat, because it destroys the garments.20
R. Hisda advised his daughters: Act modestly before your husbands: do not eat bread before your husbands,23 do not eat greens at night,24 do not eat dates at night nor drink beer at night,25 and do not ease yourselves where your husbands do,26 and when someone calls at the door, do not say 'who is he' but 'who is she?'27 He [R. Hisda] held a jewel in one hand and a [valueless] seed grain in the other; the pearl he showed them but the seed grain he did not show them until they were suffering,28 and then he showed it to them.29
MISHNAH. ONE MAY SWEEP OUT [THE MANGER] FOR A STALL OX,32 AND MOVE [THE REMNANTS] ASIDE FOR THE SAKE OF A GRAZING ANIMAL:33 THIS IS R. DOSA'S VIEW, BUT THE SAGES FORBID IT. ONE MAY TAKE [FODDER] FROM ONE ANIMAL AND PLACE IT BEFORE ANOTHER ANIMAL ON THE SABBATH.34
GEMARA. The scholars asked: Do the Rabbis disagree with the first clause, or with the second, or with both? — Come and hear: For it was taught, But the Sages maintain: Both the one and the other35 must not be moved on a side.36
R. Hisda said: They differ in respect of a ground manger,37 but all agree that a manger which is a vessel38 is permitted. But is there any opinion that a ground manger is permitted: surely one levels the holes? — Rather if stated, it was thus stated: R. Hisda said: They differ in respect of a vessel manger, but all hold that a ground manger is forbidden.
ONE MAY TAKE [FODDER] FROM ONE ANIMAL [etc.]. One [Baraitha] taught: One may take [fodder] from before an animal that is fastidious and place [it] before an animal that is not fastidious; while another taught: One may take [fodder] from before an animal that is not fastidious and place [it] before an animal that is fastidious. Abaye observed: Both [Baraithas hold] that one may take from an ass [to put] before an ox, but not from an ox [and place it] before an ass. Now, when it is taught, 'One may take from before an animal that is fastidious', it refers to an ass, which does not drop saliva [into its food]; 'and place [it] before an animal that is not fastidious', to a cow,
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