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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
the meaning of utensil' [here] from [the employment of] 'utensil' there, answered he.1
'A sack goes beyond a garment, in that it is unclean as woven material.' Is then a garment not woven material? — This is its meaning: A sack goes beyond a garment, for though it is not of woven material, yet it is unclean.2 For what is it fit? — Said R. Johanan: A poor man plaits three threads [of goats' hair]3 and suspends it from his daughter's neck.
Our Rabbis taught: [And upon whatsoever any of them … doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood … or] sack:4 I know it only of a sack:5 how do we know to include a horse cover and the saddle band?6 Therefore it is said, 'or sack'.7 I might think that I can include ropes and cords;8 therefore 'sack' is stated: just as a sack is spun and woven, so must everything be spun and woven.9 Now, concerning the dead it is stated, and all that is made of skin, and all work of goats' hair … ye shall purify yourselves:10 this is to include a horse cover and the saddle band.11 I might think that I can include ropes and cords. (But it [the reverse] is logical:12 [the Divine Law] teaches defilement by a dead reptile, and it teaches defilement by the dead: just as when it teaches defilement by a reptile, it declares unclean only that which is spun and woven; so when it teaches defilement by the dead, it declares unclean only that which is spun and woven. How so! If it is lenient in respect to defilement through a reptile, which is lighter, shall we be lenient13 in respect to defilement by the dead, which is graver?)14 Therefore 'raiment and skin' is stated twice, to provide a gezerah shawah.15 Thus: raiment and skin are mentioned in connection with reptiles,16 and also in connection with the dead:17 just as the 'raiment and skin' which are mentioned in connection with reptiles, it [Scripture] declares unclean only that which is spun and woven, so the 'raiment and skin' which are stated in connection with the dead, it declares unclean only that which is spun and woven;18 and just as 'raiment and skin' which are stated in connection with the dead, anything made of goats' hair is unclean, so 'raiment and skin' which are stated in connection with reptiles, anything made of goats' hair is unclean.19 Now, I know it only of that which comes from goats: how do I know to include what is produced from the tail of a horse or a cow? Therefore it is stated, 'or sack'.20 (But you have utilized it in respect of a horse cover and saddle bands? — That was only before the gezerah shawah was adduced; but now that we have the gezerah shawah, it [sc. the 'or'] is superfluous.)21 And I know this only in the case of a reptile: how do we know it in respect to defilement by the dead? But it is logical:22 [Scripture] declares uncleanness through the dead, and also declares uncleanness through reptiles: just as when it declares uncleanness through the dead, it treats that which is produced from the tail of a horse or cow as that which is made of goats' hair, so when it declares uncleanness through the dead, it treats that which is produced from the tail of a horse or a cow as that which is made of goats' hair. How so! If it [Scripture] includes [this] in defilement until evening, which is extensive, shall we include [it] in seven days' defilement, which is limited?23 Therefore 'raiment and skin' are stated twice, to provide a gezerah shawah. 'Raiment and skin' are stated in connection with reptiles, and 'raiment and skin' are stated also in connection with the dead; just as raiment and skin,' which are stated in connection with reptiles, that which comes from the tail of a horse or cow is treated as that which is made of goats' hair, so 'raiment and skin' which are stated in connection with the dead, that which is produced from the tail of a horse or cow is treated as that which is made of goats' hair. And this must be redundant.24 For if it is not redundant, one can refute [the deduction]: as for a reptile, that is because it defiles by the size of a lentil.25 In truth, it is redundant. For consider: a reptile is likened to semen, for it is written, a man whose seed goeth from him,26 in proximity to which it is written, or whosoever toucheth any creeping thing;27 while in respect to semen it is written, and every garment and every skin, whereon is the seed of copulation;28 then what is the purpose of 'raiment and skin' written by the Divine Law in connection with reptiles? Infer from this that its purpose is to leave it redundant.29 Yet it is still redundant [only] on one side:30 this is well on the view that where it is redundant on one side we can learn [identity of law] and cannot refute [the deduction]; but on the view that we can learn, but also refute,31 what can be said? — That [stated] in connection with the dead is also redundant. For consider: the dead is likened to semen, for it is written, 'and whoso toucheth anything that is unclean by the dead, or a man whose seed goeth from him'; while in respect to semen it is written, 'and every garment and every skin, whereon shall be the seed of copulation. What then is the purpose of 'raiment and skin' written by the Divine Law in connection with the dead? Infer from this that its purpose is to leave it redundant.
And we have brought the Lord's oblation, what every man hath gotten, of jewels of gold, ankle chains, and bracelets, signet-rings, ear-rings, and armlets.32 R. Eleazar said: 'Agil is a cast of female breasts; kumaz is a cast of the womb. R. Joseph observed: Thus it is that we translate it33 mahok, [meaning] the place that leads to obscenity [gihuk]. Said Rabbah to him, It is implied in the very Writ itself: Kumaz=here [Ka-an] is the place [Mekom] of unchastity [Zimmah].34
And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host.35 R. Nahman said in Rabbah b. Abbuha's name: Moses said to Israel: 'Maybe ye have returned to your first lapse [sin]?'36 'There lacketh not one man of us,37 they replied. 'If so,' he queried, 'Why an atonement?' 'Though we escaped from sin,' said they. 'yet we did not escape from meditating upon sin.' Straightway, 'and we have brought the Lord's offering'38 The School of R. Ishmael taught: Why were the Israelites of that generation in need of atonement? Because
they gratified their eyes with lewdness. R. Shesheth said: Why does the Writ enumerate the outward ornaments with the inner?1 To teach you: Whoever looks upon a woman's little finger is as though he gazed upon the pudenda.2
MISHNAH. A WOMAN MAY GO OUT WITH RIBBONS MADE OF HAIR,3 WHETHER THEY ARE OF HER OWN [HAIR] OR OF HER COMPANIONS, OR OF AN ANIMAL, AND WITH FRONTLETS AND WITH SARBITIN4 THAT ARE FASTENED TO HER. [SHE MAY GO OUT] WITH A HAIR-NET [KABUL] AND WITH A WIG5 INTO A COURTYARD; WITH WADDING IN HER EAR, WITH WADDING IN HER SANDALS,6 AND WITH THE CLOTH PREPARED FOR HER MENSTRUATION; WITH A PEPPERCORN, WITH A GLOBULE OF SALT AND ANYTHING THAT IS PLACED IN HER MOUTH,7 PROVIDING THAT SHE DOES NOT PUT IT IN HER MOUTH IN THE FIRST PLACE ON THE SABBATH, AND IF IT FAILS OUT,8 SHE MAY NOT PUT IT BACK. AS FOR AN ARTIFICIAL TOOTH, [OR] A GOLD TOOTH,9 — RABBI PERMITS BUT THE SAGES FORBID IT.
GEMARA. And it is necessary [to state all the cases].10 For if we were told about her own [hair], that might be because it is not ugly; but as for her companions', which is unbecoming.11 I might say [that it is] not [permitted].12 While if we were informed about her companions', that might be because she is of her own kind; but an animal's, that is not of her own kind, I might say [that it is] not [permitted].13 Thus they are necessary.
It was taught: Providing that a young woman does not go out with an old woman's [hair], or an old woman with a young woman's.14 As for an old woman [not going out] with a young woman's hair, that is well, because it is an improvement for her; but [that] a young woman [may not go out] with an old woman's [hair]. why [state it], seeing that it is unsuitable for her?]15 — Because he teaches of an old woman's [going out] with a young woman's [hair], he also teaches of a young woman's [going out] with an old woman's hair.
WITH A HAIR-NET AND A WIG INTO A COURTYARD. Rab said: Whatever the Sages forbade to go out therewith into the street, one may not go out therewith into a courtyard,16 except a hair-net and a wig. R. 'Anani b. Sason said on the authority of R. Ishmael son of R. Jose: It is all like a hair-net. We learnt: WITH A HAIR-NET AND A WIG INTO A COURTYARD. As for Rab, it is well; but according to R. 'Anani b. Sason it is a difficulty? — On whose authority does R. 'Anani b. Sason say this? On that of R. Ishmael son of R. Jose! R. Ishmael son of R. Jose is a Tanna, and can disagree.17
Now, according to Rab, why do these differ? — Said 'Ulla, [They are permitted] lest she become repulsive to her husband.18 As it was taught: And she that is sick shall be in her impurity:19 the early Sages20 ruled: That means that she must not rouge nor paint nor adorn herself in dyed garments; until R. Akiba came and taught: If so, you make her repulsive to her husband, with the result that he will divorce her! But what [then] is taught by, 'and she that is sick shall be it, her impurity'? She shall remain in her impurity until she enters Into water.21
Rab Judah said in Rab's name: Wherever the Sages forbade [aught] for appearances' sake, it is forbidden even In one's innermost chambers.22
We learnt: Nor with a bell, even if it is plugged.23 And it was elsewhere taught.24 One may plug the bell around its [the animal's] neck and saunter with it in the courtyard?25 — It is [a controversy of] Tannaim. For it was taught:
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