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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
MISHNAH. IF IT [A POT] WAS NOT COVERED6 WHILE IT WAS YET DAY, IT MAY NOT BE COVERED AFTER NIGHTFALL.7 IF IT WAS COVERED BUT BECAME UNCOVERED, IT MAY BE RECOVERED. A CRUSE MAY BE FILLED WITH [COLD] WATER AND PLACED UNDER A PILLOW OR BOLSTER.8
GEMARA. Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: Cold [water, food, etc.9 may be hidden.; Said R. Joseph, What does he inform us? We learnt: A CRUSE MAY BE FILLED WITH [COLD] WATER AND PLACED UNDER A PILLOW OR A BOLSTER. Abaye answered him: He tells us much. For if [we learnt] from the Mishnah [alone], I might argue: That applies only to an object which it is not customary to store away,10 but not to an object which it is customary to store away.11 Therefore he informs us [that it is not so].
R. Huna said on Rabbi's authority: Cold [water, food, etc.] may not be hidden.12 But it was taught: Rabbi permitted cold [water, etc.] to be hidden? — There is no difficulty: the one [ruling was given] before he heard it from R. Ishmael son of R. Jose; the other after he heard it [from him]. For Rabbi sat and declared: Cold [water, etc.] may not be hidden. Said R. ishmael son of R. Jose to him, My father permitted cold [water] to be hidden. Then the Elder13 has already given a ruling, answered he.14 R. Papa observed: Come and see how much they loved each other! For were R. Jose alive, he would have sat submissively before Rabbi, since R. Ishmael son of R. Jose, who occupied his father's place,15 sat submissively before Rabbi,16 yet he [Rabbi] said, Then the Elder has already given a ruling.17
R. Nahman said to his slave Daru: Put away cold water for me,18 and bring me water heated by a Gentile19 cook20 When R. Ammi heard thereof, he objected. Said R. Joseph: Why should be have objected? He acted in accordance with his teachers, one [act] being according to Rab, and the other according to Samuel. According to Samuel, for Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: Cold [water, etc.] may be hidden. According to Rab, for R. Samuel son of R. Isaac said in Rab's name: Whatever can be eaten in its natural state,21 raw, is not subject to [the interdict against] the cooking of Gentiles. But he [R. Ammi] held that an important man is different.22
Our Rabbis taught: Though it was said, One may not store [food] after nightfall even in a substance which does not add heat, yet if one comes to add,23 he may add. How does he do it?24 R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: He may remove the sheets and replace them with blankets, or remove the blankets and replace them with sheets.25 And thus did R. Simeon b. Gamaliel say: Only the self-same boiler was forbidden;26 but if it [the food] was emptied from that boiler into another, it is permitted: seeing that he cools it,27 will he indeed heat it up!28 If one stored [food] in and covered [it] with a substance that may be handled on the Sabbath, or if he stored [it] in something that may not be handled on the Sabbath, but covered [it] with something that may be handled on the Sabbath, he may remove [the covering] and replace it.29 If one stored [food] in and covered [it] with a substance that may not be handled on the Sabbath, or if he stored (it] in something that may be handled on the Sabbath, but covered it with something that may not be handled on the Sabbath, provided it was partly uncovered, he may take it [out] and replace [it];30 but if not,
it may not be removed and replaced. R. Judah said: Thoroughly beaten flax is the same as foliage.1 A boiler may be placed upon a boiler, and a pot upon a pot,2 but not a pot upon a boiler,3 or a boiler upon a pot;4 and the mouth [thereof]5 may [also] be daubed over with dough:6 not in order to make them7 hotter, but that [their heat] may be retained. And just as hot [food] may not be hidden, so may cold [food] not be hidden. Rabbi permitted cold [food] to be hidden. And neither snow nor hail may be broken up on the Sabbath in order that the water should flow, but they may be placed in a goblet or dish, without fear.8
MISHNAH. WHEREWITH MAY AN ANIMAL GO OUT [ON THE SABBATH], AND WHEREWITH MAY IT NOT GO OUT? A CAMEL MAY GO FORTH WITH A BIT, A DROMEDARY [NE'AKAH] WITH ITS NOSE-RING [HOTEM], A LYBIAN ASS WITH A HALTER, A HORSE WITH ITS CHAIN, AND ALL CHAINWEARING ANIMALS MAY GO OUT WITH THEIR CHAINS AND BE LED BY THEIR CHAINS, AND [WATER OF LUSTRATION] MAY BE SPRINKLED UPON THEM, AND THEY MAY BE IMMERSED IN THEIR PLACE.9
GEMARA. What is meant by a NE'AKAH WITH A HOTEM? — Said Rabbah b. Bar Hanah: A white [female] camel with its iron nose-ring.
A LYBIAN ASS WITH A HALTER. R. Huna said: That means a Lybian ass with an iron halter.10 Levi sent money to Be Hozae11 for a Lybian ass to be bought for him. [But] they parcelled up some barley and sent it to him, to intimate to him that an ass's steps depend on barley.12
Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: They [the scholars] transposed them13 [in their questions] before Rabbi: What about one animal going forth with [the accoutrement] of the other? As for a dromedary [ne'akah] with a bit, there is no question; since it is not guarded thereby, it is a burden.14 The problem is in respect of a camel with a nose-ring. How is it: Since a bit is sufficient, this [the nose-ring] is a burden; or Perhaps an additional guard is not called a burden? Said R. Ishmael son of R. Jose before him, Thus did my father rule: Four animals may go out with a bit: a horse, mule, camel and ass. What does this exclude? Surely it excludes a camel [from being led out] with a nose-ring? — No: it excludes a dromedary [ne'akah] with a bit. In a Baraitha it was taught: A Lybian ass and a camel may go out with a bit.
This is dependent on Tannaim: A beast may not go forth with a muzzle;15 Hananiah said: It may go forth with a muzzle and with anything whereby it is guarded. To what is the reference? Shall we say, to a large beast? is a muzzle sufficient! But if a small beast is meant, is a muzzle insufficient?16 Hence they must surely differ in respect to a cat: the first Tanna holds: since a mere cord is sufficient, it [a muzzle] is a burden;17 while Hananiah holds, Whatever is an additional guard is not called a burden. R. Huna b. Hiyya said in Samuel's name: The halachah, is as Hananiah.
Levi son of R. Huna b. Hiyya and Rabbah b. R. Huna were travelling on a road, when Levi's ass went ahead of Rabbah b. R. Huna's, whereupon Rabbah b. R. Huna felt aggrieved.18 Said he [Levi], I will say something to him, so that
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