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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
Tebillah in its [due] time is not obligatory,1 hence we seek [it]; whereas R. Jose holds, Tebillah in its [duel time is obligatory, hence we do not seek [it].
Now, does then R. Jose hold, Tebillah in its [due] time is obligatory? Surely it was taught: A zab and a zabah, a male leper and a female leper, he who cohabits with a niddah,2 and he who is defiled through a corpse, [perform] their tebillah by day.3 A niddah and woman in confinement [perform] their tebillah at night.4 A ba'al keri5 must proceed with tebillah at any time of the day.6 R. Jose said: [If the mishap happened] from minhah and beyond he need not7 perform tebillah.8 — [The author of] that is R. Jose son of R. Judah who maintained: [One] tebillah at the end suffices for her.9
MISHNAH. IF A GENTILE COMES TO EXTINGUISH, WE DO NOT SAY TO HIM, 'EXTINGUISH IT' OR 'DO NOT EXTINGUISH,' BECAUSE HIS RESTING IS NOT OUR OBLIGATION.10 BUT IF A MINOR COMES TO EXTINGUISH, WE MUST NOT PERMIT HIM,11 BECAUSE HIS RESTING IS OUR OBLIGATION.
GEMARA. R. Ammi said: In the case of a conflagration they [the Rabbis] permitted one to announce, 'Whoever extinguishes [it] will not lose [thereby].' Shall we say that this supports him: IF A GENTILE COMES TO EXTINGUISH, WE DO NOT SAY TO HIM, EXTINGUISH OR DO NOT EXTINGUISH, BECAUSE HIS RESTING IS NOT OUR OBLIGATION: thus we [merely] may not say to him, Extinguish [it],' but we may say, 'Whoever extinguishes [it] will not lose [thereby].' Then consider the second clause: WE DO NOT SAY TO HIM … DO NOT EXTINGUISH but neither may we say to him, 'Whoever extinguishes [it] will not lose [thereby]?'12 Rather no deduction can be made from this.13
Our Rabbis taught: It once happened that a fire broke out in the courtyard of Joseph b. Simai in Shihin, and the men of the garrison at Sepphoris14 came to extinguish it, because he was a steward of the king.15 But he did not permit them, in honour of the Sabbath, and a miracle happened on his behalf, rain descended and extinguished [it]. In the evening he sent two sela' to each of them, and fifty to their captain. But when the Sages heard of it they said, He did not need this, for we learnt: IF A GENTILE COMES TO EXTINGUISH, WE DO NOT SAY TO HIM, 'EXTINGUISH' OR 'DO NOT EXTINGUISH'.
BUT IF A MINOR COMES TO EXTINGUISH, WE DO NOT PERMIT HIM, BECAUSE HIS RESTING IS OUR OBLIGATION. You may infer from this [that] if a minor eats nebeloth,16 it is the duty of Beth din to restrain him?17 — Said R. Johanan: This refers to a minor acting at his father's desire.18 Then by analogy, in respect to the Gentile, he [too] acts at the Jew's desire: is this permitted? — A Gentile acts at his own desire.19
MISHNAH. A DISH MAY BE INVERTED OVER A LAMP, THAT THE BEAMS SHOULD NOT CATCH [FIRE], AND OVER AN INFANT'S EXCREMENT, AND OVER A SCORPION, THAT IT SHOULD NOT BITE. R. JUDAH SAID: AN INCIDENT CAME BEFORE R. JOHANAN B. ZAKKAI IN ARAB,20 AND HE SAID, I FEAR ON HIS ACCOUNT [THAT HE MAY BE LIABLE TO] A SIN-OFFERING.21
GEMARA. Rab Judah and R. Jeremiah b. Abba and R. Hanan b. Raba visited the home of Abin of Neshikya.22 For Rab Judah and R. Jeremiah b. Abba
couches were brought; for R. Hanan b. Raba none was brought.1 Now, he found him reciting to his son, AND OVER AN INFANT'S EXCREMENT, on account of the infant.2 Said he to him, 'Abin! a fool recites nonsense to his son:3 surely that itself is fit for dogs!4 And should you say that it was not fit for him from yesterday,5 surely it was taught: Flowing rivers and gushing springs are as the feet of all men?6 Then how shall I recite it? — Say: Over the excrement of fowls, on account of an infant.7 But deduce it8 because it is [as] a vessel for excrements.9 And should you answer, The vessel of excrements is only [permitted] in virtue of the utensil,10 yet that itself may not [be carried out], — but a mouse was found in R. Ashi's spices, and he said to them [his servants], 'Take it by the tail and throw it out?'11 — This refers to a dung heap.12 But what business has an infant with a dung heap?13 — It is in the courtyard.14 But in a courtyard too it is a vessel of excrements? — It refers to a dung heap in the courtyard.
AND OVER A SCORPION, THAT IT SHOULD NOT BITE. R. Joshua b. Levi said: All [animals, etc.] that cause injury15 may be killed on the Sabbath. R. Joseph objected: Five may be killed on the Sabbath, and these are they: the Egyptian fly, the hornet of Nineweh, the scorpion of Adiabene,16 the snake in Palestine, and a mad dog anywhere. Now, who [is the authority?] Shall we say, R. Judah? Surely he maintains, One is guilty on account of a labour not required for itself?17 Hence it must be R. Simeon, and only these are permitted, but not others? — Said R. Jeremiah, And who tells us that this is correct: perhaps it is corrupt? Said R. Joseph: I recited it and I raised the objection, and I can answer it: This is where they are pursuing him, and is unanimous.18
A tanna recited before Rabbah son of R. Huna: If one kills snakes or scorpions on the Sabbath, the spirit of the pious19 is displeased with him. He retorted, And as to those pious men, the spirit of the Sages is displeased with them. Now, he disagrees with R. Huna, for R. Huna saw a man kill a wasp. Said he to him, 'Have you wiped them all out?'20
Our Rabbis taught: If one chances upon snakes and scorpions, and he kills them, it is manifest that he had chanced upon them in order to kill them; if he does not kill them, it is manifest that he had chanced upon them that they should kill him, but that a miracle was performed by Heaven on his behalf. 'Ulla said: — others state, Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in R. Johanan's name — That is when they hiss at him.21
R. Abba b. Kahana said: One [of them] once fell in the Beth Hamidrash, and a Nabatean22 arose and killed it.23 Said Rabbi: A similar one must have attacked him. The scholars asked: 'A similar one must have attacked him' [means] that he had done well, or not?24 — Come and hear: For R. Abba, son of R. Hiyya b. Abba, and R. Zera were sitting in the anteroom of R. Jannai's academy, [when] something issued from between them.25 [So] they asked R. Jannai: May one kill snakes and scorpions on the Sabbath? Said he to them: I kill a hornet, how much more so snakes and scorpions! But perhaps that is (only] incidentally,26 for Rab Judah said: One can tread down saliva incidentally:27 and R. Shesheth said, One can tread down a snake incidentally, and R. Kattina said, One may tread down a scorpion incidentally.28
Abba b. Martha, who is Abba b. Minyomi, owed money to the house of the Resh Galutha. [So] they brought him [before the Resh Galutha]; he distressed him [and] he29 spat out saliva,30 [whereupon] the Resh Galutha ordered, 'Bring a vessel and cover it.' Said he to them, 'You do not need this, [for] thus did Rab Judah say: One can tread down saliva incidentally.' 'He is a scholar,' remarked he [the Resh Galutha]; 'let him go'.
R. Abba b. Kahana also said in R. Hanina's name: The candlesticks31 of Rabbi's household may be handled on the Sabbath.
R. Zera asked him: [Does that mean] where they can be taken up with one hand, or [even] with two hands?
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