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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath

Folio 114a

Whence do we learn change of garments1  in the Torah? Because it is said, And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments,2  and the School of R. Ishmael taught: The Torah teaches you manners: In the garments in which one cooked a dish for his master, one should not mix a cup [of wine] for his master.3

R. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan's name: It is a disgrace for a scholar to go out with patched shoes into the market place. But R. Aha b. Hanina did go out [thus]? — Said R. Aha son of R. Nahman: The reference is to patches upon patches. R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: Any scholar upon whose garment a [grease] stain is found is worthy of death,4  for it is said, All they that hate me [mesanne'ai] love [merit] death:5  read not mesanne'ai but masni'ai [that make me hated, i.e., despised].6  Rabina said: This was stated about a thick patch.7  Yet they do not differ: one refers to the upper garment [coat], the other to a shirt.

R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: What is meant by the verse, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot?8  'Naked' means in worn-out garments; 'barefoot' in patched shoes.

We learnt elsewhere: A grease stain upon a saddle constitutes an interposition.9  R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: [The inferior limit is] as much as an Italian issar.10  On garments: [if the stain is] on one side, it does not interpose; [if] on both sides,11  it interposes. R. Judah said in R. Ishmael's name: Even on one side it interposes.12

R. Simeon b. Lakish asked R. Hanina: In the case of a saddle, [can the stain be] on one side, or [must it be] on both sides?13  I have not heard this, he replied, but have heard something similar. For we learnt, R. Jose said: [The garments] of banna'im: [a stain even] on one side [interposes]; of uncultured persons, [only a stain] on both sides [interposes].14  And surely a saddle does not stand higher than the garment of an ignoramus!15  What are banna'im — Said R. Johanan: These are scholars, who are engaged all their days in the upbuilding of the world.16

R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar to whom a lost article is returned on his recognition thereof?17  That [scholar] who is particular to turn his shirt.18  R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar that is appointed a leader of the community? He who when asked a matter of halachah in any place can answer it, even in the Tractate Kallah.19  R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar whose work it is the duty of his townspeople to perform?20  He who abandons his own interest and engages in religious affairs; yet that is only to provide21  his bread.22

R. Johanan also said: Who is a scholar? He who is asked a halachah in any place and can state it, In respect of what practical matter? — To appoint him a Ieader of the community: if [he is well versed only] in one Tractate, [he can be appointed] in his own town; if in the whole [field of] learning,23  [he can be appointed] as the head of an academy.24

R. Simeon b Lakish said: This means25  the court robes [olaryin]26  that come from overseas, Shall we say that they are white? But R. Jannai said to his sons, 'My sons, bury me neither in white shrouds nor in black shrouds, White, lest I do not merit,27  and am like a bridegroom among mourners: black, in case I have merit, and am like a mourner among bridegrooms. But [bury me] in court garments [olaryin] that come from overseas. This proves that they are coloured. — There is no difficulty: one refers to robes,28  the other to shirts.29

R. ISHMAEL SAID: ONE MAY FOLD UP, etc. Our Rabbis taught: The burnt-offering of the Sabbath, on the Sabbath thereof:30  this teaches concerning the fats of the Sabbath, that they may be offered [burnt] on the Day of Atonement. One might think. Those of the Day of Atonement [can] also [be burnt] on the Sabbath, therefore it s stated, 'on the Sabbath thereof': this is R. Ishmael's opinion. R. Akiba said: 'The burnt-offering of the Sabbath on the Sabbath thereof': this teaches concerning the fats of the sabbath, that they can be offered on a Festival.31  One might think, On the Day of Atonement too, therefore it is stated, 'on the Sabbath thereof.' When you examine the matter,32  according to R. Ishmael's opinion, vows33  and freewill-offerinqs34  may be sacrificed on a Festival, hence the verse is required in respect of the Day of Atonement.35  [But] on the view of R. Akiba, vows and freewill-offerings cannot be sacrificed on a Festival; hence the verse is required to permit [the burning of the fats on] Festivals.

R. Zera said:

Original footnotes renumbered. See Structure of the Talmud Files
  1. As an act of honour.
  2. Lev. VI, 4.
  3. In Talmudic times liquor was diluted with water.
  4. This expression merely denotes strong indignation a scholar should set a high standard of cleanliness.
  5. Prov. VIII, 36. The speaker is learning personified.
  6. For a scholar who has no pride in his personal appearance brings contempt upon his learning.
  7. Jast.; v. however, Rashi.
  8. Isa. XX, 3.
  9. When an article is unclean and requires tebillah (v. Glos.), nothing may interpose between it and the water; otherwise the tebillah is invalid. With respect to stains, etc., if one generally objects to them, they are an interposition; if not, they are not an interposition. A grease stain belongs to the former category.
  10. A certain coin. The stain must be at least that size for it to interpose.
  11. The greasiness having soaked through.
  12. V. Kel. IX, 5, 6.
  13. In R. Ishmael's view.
  14. The former are more fastidious than the latter. R. Jose disagrees with R. Judah and maintains that according to R. Ishmael a stain on the garments of banna'im (explained below as meaning scholars) interposes even if it is on one side only. — This passage is cited to show that scholars must be particular.
  15. I.e., an uncultured person. On 'am ha-arez v. p 51, n. 1.
  16. Banna'im lit. means builders. Frankel, Zeitschrift fur die Religiosen Interessen des Judentums', 1846 p. 455 maintains that the term banna'im was originally applied to the Essenes. — Ignorance is the greatest enemy of stability, but it should be noted that the phrase (disciple of the wise) (talmid hakam) always denoted scholarship plus piety.
  17. Lit., 'on impression of the eye'. The ordinary person in claiming a lost article must state identification marks, but a scholar is believed if he simply states that he recognizes it; B.M. 23b.
  18. For the seams and rough edges to be on the inside. It appears that not all were particular about this.
  19. A short tractate of that name. Rashi: Though this is not generally studied. Others: the laws of Festivals (Kallah was the name given to the general assemblies in Elul and Adar, when the laws of the Festivals were popularly expounded). v. Kid., Sonc. ed., p. 247, nn 3-4.
  20. V. Yoma 72b; cf. Aboth III, and note a.l. in Sonc. ed. The present passage supports the thirteenth century interpretation quoted there, and suggests that is was similarly interpreted in Talmudic ages too.
  21. Lit., 'take trouble over'.
  22. I.e., he can only demand the necessities of existence.
  23. Jast. the Mishnah, [Kaplan, J. op. cit. p. 250 understands this as a technical term denoting the summary embodying conclusions arrived at in schools as a result of the discussions based on the Mishnah]
  24. It may be observed that it is automatically assumed that the leader of a community must be a scholar for Jewry sought to promote an aristocracy of learning, not of birth. Cf. Halevi, Doroth, I, 3, pp. 640 seq.
  25. Resh Lakish gives his definition of the garments of 'banna'im'.
  26. Jast. Rashi reads: olyarim (from [G]): costly wraps used by wealthy persons at the baths.
  27. To be amongst the righteous.
  28. Upper garments, which were coloured,
  29. Or, chemises. These were white.
  30. Num. XXXVIII, 10. This is interpreted with and without the 'thereof' (the suffix u). Thus: (i) The burnt-offering of one Sabbath may be completed (i.e., its fat burnt on the altar) on another Sabbath; (ii) The burnt-offering of one Sabbath must be completed on that self-same Sabbath. In this connection it must be observed that the Day of Atonement too is designated Sabbath in Lev. XXIII, 32
  31. Following the Sabbath.
  32. Lit., 'when you find to say',
  33. I.e. vowed sacrifices,
  34. For the difference v, R. H. 6a. Both, of course, are voluntary sacrifices,
  35. For if even voluntary offerings. which can be brought on weekdays, may be sacrificed on a Festival, it goes without saying that fats left over from the obligatory public sacrifices of the Sabbath can be burnt in the evening, even if it is a Festival, and no verse is necessary to teach this. Consequently the verse must be referred to the Day of Atonement,

Shabbath 114b

When I was in Babylon1  I thought,2  That which was taught, If the Day of Atonement fell on the eve of the sabbath [Friday], it [the Shofar] was not sounded,3  while [if it fell] at the termination of the Sabbath, habdalah was not recited,4  is a unanimous opinion. But when I emigrated thither [to Palestine]. I found Judah the son of R. Simeon b. Pazzi sitting and saying, This is according to Akiba [only];5  for if [it agrees with] R. Ishmael, — since he maintains, The fats of the Sabbath may be offered on the Day of Atonement, let it [the Shofar] be sounded, so that it may be known that the fats of the Sabbath can be offered on the Day of Atonement,6  Whereupon I said to him, The priests7  are zealous.8

Mar Kashisha son of R. Hisda said to R. Ashi: Do we then say, Priests are zealous? Surely we learnt: Three [blasts were blown] to cause the people to cease work; three, to distinguish between the holy [day] and weekdays?9  — As Abaye answered,10  it was for the rest of the people in Jerusalem; so here too it was for the rest of the people in Jerusalem.

Yet let it [the Shofar] be blown, so that they might know that the trimming of vegetables is permitted [on the Day of Atonement] from the [time of] minhah11  and onwards?12  Said R. Joseph: Because a shebuth13  is not superseded in order to give permission.14  While R. Shisha son of R. Idi answered: A shehuth [of] immediate15  [importance] was permitted; a shebuth [of] distant [importance] was not permitted16  But did they permit a shebuth [of] immediate [importance]? Surely we learnt: If a Festival falls on Friday, we sound [the shofar] but do not recite habdalah;17  [if it falls] at the termination of the Sabbath, we recite habdalah18  but do not sound [the shofar].19  But why so: let it be sounded so that it may be known that killing [animals for food] is permitted immediately [the Sabbath ends]?20  Rather it is clear that it is as R. Joseph [answered].

R. Zera said in R. Huna's name — others state, R. Abba said in R. Huna's name: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is forbidden. R. Mana said, It was taught likewise: How do we know that if the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables21  is forbidden? Because it is said, Sabbathon; it is a shebuth.22  Now, in respect of what [is it stated]: shall we say. In respect of labour23  — surely it is written, thou shalt not do any work?24  Hence it must surely refer to the trimming of vegetables;25  this proves it.

A. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan's name: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is permitted. An objection is raised: How do we know that if the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is forbidden? Because sabbathon is stated: it is a shebuth. In respect of what: shall we say in respect of labour, — surely it is written, 'thou shalt not do any work'? Hence it must surely refer to the trimming of vegetables! — No: in truth it refers to actual work, but [it is stated] to [show that] one violates an affirmative and a negative injunction on account thereof.26  It was taught in accordance with R. Johanan: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath,

Original footnotes renumbered. See Structure of the Talmud Files
  1. R. Zera was a Babylonian who studied at home first and then emigrated to Palestine,
  2. Lit., 'said',
  3. As on ordinary Fridays, supra 35b.
  4. In the evening prayer, V. Glos. When a Festival falls on Sunday, habdalah is recited in the evening to signify that there is a distinction between the holiness of the Sabbath and that of Festivals.
  5. Since he maintains that the fats of the Sabbath may not be burnt on the Day of Atonement and vice versa, he evidently holds that they each enjoy equal sanctity. Therefore neither habdalah nor the sounding of the shofar is required, for these are necessary only to mark a difference in the degree of sanctity.
  6. For the sounding of the shofar would teach that the Day of Atonement possessed a lower degree of holiness.
  7. Who burn the fats.
  8. They take care to know the law and need no reminder.
  9. This was done in the Temple, and he assumed that it was in order to remind the priests,
  10. In reference to another matter; v, Yoma 37b,
  11. V. Glos.
  12. In this it differs from the Sabbath, when it is forbidden, V. infra.
  13. V. Glos.; the blowing of the shofar is a shebuth.
  14. But only where it is necessary to emphasize prohibitions, e.g., if Friday is a Festival, so that many things permitted thereon are forbidden on the Sabbath,
  15. Lit., 'near',
  16. If it were of immediate importance, the shebuth would have been permitted. But in any case when the day of Atonement falls on Friday, the vegetables, even if trimmed, cannot be cooked on the Sabbath. So that the sounding of the shofar would only be of importance for subsequent Days of Atonement, and in such a case the shebuth is not superseded.
  17. On Friday evening, because habdalah is recited only when a more stringent holiness is left behind.
  18. On Saturday evening.
  19. Saturday afternoon.
  20. For the preparation of food is permitted on Festivals, Ex, XII. 6.
  21. I.e., cutting away those parts of vegetables which are not edible. The reference is of course to unattached vegetables.
  22. Ex. XVI, 23: E.V. (solemn) rest. Here it is translated as shebuth, and thus intimates such labour as trimming vegetables.
  23. I.e., the word forbids actual labour, e.g. the trimming of vegetables that are still attached to the soil, supra 73b. — The discussion here treats of vegetables already cut off from the ground.
  24. Ex, XX, 9, hence sabbathon is superfluous.
  25. The verse is merely a support (asmakta), the prohibition being a Rabbinical one only (Ri).
  26. Sabbathon is an affirmative command, bidding one to rest,