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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
R. Judah said: If it is ten [handbreadths] deep [internally] but not ten high,1 one may transport from it into the sea, but not from the sea into it. Why not from the sea into it: because we [thus] transport from a karmelith into private ground? Then from it into the sea, one also transports from private ground to a karmelith? Hence it must surely mean on its edge.2 which proves that they do not forbid one's force in connection with a karmelith: this proves it.
R. Huna said: As for the canal boats of Mesene,3 we may carry in them only within [a distance of] four cubits.4 But we say this only if they lack [a breadth of] four [handbreadths] at less than three [from the bottom edge]; but if they have [a breadth of] four at less than three, we have no objection; or if they are filled with canes and bullrushes,5 we have no objection.6 R. Nahman demurred to this: But let us say, Stretch and bring the partitions down.7 Was it not taught, R. Jose son of R. Judah said: If one plants a rod in the street, at the top of which is a basket, and throws [an article] and it comes to rest upon it, he is liable: this proves that we say. Stretch and bring the partitions down,8 so here too let us say, Stretch and bring the partition down? R. Joseph demurred to this, Yet did they not hear what was said by Rab Judah in Rab's name, which some trace to R. Hiyya: And it was taught thereon, But the Sages exempt [him]?9 Said Abaye to him: And do you not hold thus? But it was taught: If a pillar in the street [is] ten [handbreadths] high and four broad, but its base is not four, and this narrow portion is three [in height],10 and one throws [an article] and it alights upon it, he is liable: this proves that we say, Stretch and bring the partitions down;11 so here too, stretch and bring the partition down. Hence [Abaye continues].12 this is surely [not] an argument; there13 it is partition through which goats can pass;14 but here15 they are partitions through which goats cannot pass.16 R. Aha son of R. Aha said to R. Ashi: But in the case of a ship too, there is the passing through of fish? The passing through of fish is not designated passing through, he replied. And whence do you say this? For R. Tabla asked Rab: Can a suspended partition make a ruin permissible [for carrying therein]?17 And he answered him: A suspended partition makes [something] permissible only
in water, this being a leniency which the Rabbis permitted in connection with water. But why so: surely there is the passing through of fish? Hence infer from this that the passing through of fish is not designated passing through.
IF SHIPS ARE TIED TOGETHER, etc. This is obvious? — Said Raba. This is necessary only to permit [carrying via] a small boat [lying] between them.1 Said R. Safra to him, By Moses!2 do you say right? We learnt, ONE MAY CARRY FROM ONE TO ANOTHER!3 — Rather said R. Safra. It is necessary only to [teach that one may] combine them4 and carry from one to another, and as it was taught: If ships are tied to each other, one may combine them and carry from one to another. If they are separated, they become prohibited. If they are rejoined. whether in ignorance5 or wilfully. accidentally or erroneously,6 they revert to their original permitted condition. Likewise, if mats are spread [i.e.. hung up].7 one may combine them and carry from one to another. If they are rolled up, they become prohibited. If they are respread,8 whether in ignorance or wilfully, accidentally or erroneously, they revert to their original permitted condition. For every partition that is made on the Sabbath, whether ignorantly or wilfully. is designated a partition, But that is not so? For did not R. Nahman say: They learnt this only in respect of throwing,9 yet it is forbidden to carry [therein]?10 — R. Nahman's [dictum] was stated in reference to wilful [erection].11
Samuel said: Even if they are tied by a cloak ribbon. How is that: if it can hold them together, it is obvious? If it cannot hold them together, why [does it suffice]? — In truth, it is one that can hold them together, but Samuel comes to discount his own [dictum]. For we learnt: If one ties it [a ship]12 with something that holds it still, it brings defilement to it; with something that does not hold it still, it does not bring defilement to it. Whereon Samuel observed: Providing that it is fastened with iron chains.13 Now, it is only with respect to defilement where it is written, one that it slain with a sword,14 [teaching.] the sword is like the slain,15 that that [Samuel's dictum] is so. But with respect to the Sabbath, since it can hold it still, even [if it be] with the ribbon of a cloak, [it is sufficient].
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