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Holocaust Denial

A Selected Bibliography

Prepared for the International Conference

The Dynamics of Antisemitism in the Second Half of the 20th Century

Convened by

The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem, June 13-16 1999

The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism - SICSA
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Founded in 1982, SICSA is an interdisciplinary research center dedicated to an independent, nonpolitical approach to the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge necessary for understanding the phenomenon of antisemitism.

The Center engages in research on antisemitism through the ages, focusing on relations between Jews and non-Jews, particularly in situations of tension and crisis.

The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism
Academic Committee Chairman of the Bibliographic Project: Otto Dov Kulka

Editor-in-Chief: Susan S. Cohen
Managing Editor: Rosalind N. Arzt
Editor, Retrospective Bibliography: Sylviane Stampfer


Marian Assaf, Alexander Avram, Ruth Engelberg, Lili Fogel, Sophie R. Hankes,
Yael Orvieto, Daniel Romanovsky, Hanna Volovici, Leon Volovici, Renate Wolfson

Copyright 1999 by The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism.
All rights reserved.

Holocaust Denial: A Selected Bibliography

Author Index


This selected list from the ongoing annotated database of the Felix Posen Bibliographic Project has been expressly prepared for the International Conference The Dynamics of Antisemitism in the Second Half of the 20th Century, convened by the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, June 13-16, 1999.

The entries were retrieved by keyword "Holocaust: denial" and a selection was made from 455 items retrieved.

The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project comprises an ongoing annotated database of publications from 1984 to the present, plus a retrospective database listing material from 1983 and back (currently to 1968). The goal of the project is to build a comprehensive database of all published writings about antisemitism and the Holocaust.

The databases list books, articles, dissertations and MA theses published in many countries and languages. At present there are listed ca. 20,400 items in the ongoing and ca. 8,250 items in the retrospective bibliography. Most of the material is gathered from the holdings of the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. The annotations, written in English by the project's staff of abstractors, reflect the views of the authors of the works and not of the abstractors.

The database is part of the Israel Universities Library Network (ALEPH) and can be accessed in Israel and abroad via Internet or Telnet.

Via Internet the URL (internet address) is

"Times New Roman,Times">Via Telnet, the address is

username: SICSA (no password needed).

Jerusalem, June 1999    Susan S. Cohen, Rosalind N. Arzt

Holocaust Denial: A Selected Bibliography


Abramowicz, Manuel: Extreme-droite et antisemitisme en Belgique de 1945 a nos jours. Bruxelles: EVO (Edition Vie Ouvriere), 1993. 159 pp.

Surveying Belgian extreme-right parties and groups, focuses on their antisemitic activities, anti-Jewish press, Holocaust denial, and virulent anti-Zionist slogans. Emphasizes antisemitic aspects of the Belgian Front National and the Vlaams Blok, and the antisemitic attitudes of Jean Thiriart, leader of the Belgian branch of the new rightist Young Europe movement. Mentions, also, Belgian Skinheads, and the Neopagan intellectual circles. LV

"L'Affaire Roques." Le Monde Juif  122 (Apr-June 1986) 49-79.

Consists of short articles and documents related to the doctoral thesis presented by Henri Roques at Nantes University on the Gerstein report. The thesis denies the existence of the Holocaust. Includes a response by Henri Roques to Georges Wellers' article in "Le Monde Juif" 121 (Jan-Mar 1986) and a reply by Georges Wellers; documents from a trial in 1981 on the subject of Holocaust denial involving Leon Poliakov, Pierre Guillaume, and Robert Faurisson, including declarations by witnesses in which the Gerstein report figured; and declarations by officials from Nantes University and others. HV

American Nazi Convicted in Germany: Special Report. Justice 15 (Dec 1997) 27-30.

On 27 August 1996, an American citizen, L. (b. 1953 in Milwaukee), was found guilty of incitement of the people, incitement to racial hatred, distribution of propaganda, and use of emblems of an unconstitutional organization. He was sentenced to a prison term of four years by the Regional Court of Hamburg. Presents a partial translation and summary of the opinion of the German court. Because of German law the name of the convicted person cannot be published. For 20 years, L. ran "an enormous" propaganda machine which promoted antisemitism and Holocaust denial. He visited Germany for the first time in 1972, and thereafter provided the neo-Nazi movement in Germany with German-language propaganda material. He also published neo-Nazi material in English, French, Spanish, and Swedish, and distributed it in Europe. REK

Antisemitism World Report 1996. London: Institute for Jewish Policy Research; New York: American Jewish Committee, 1996. xxiv, 344 pp.

Documents antisemitism throughout the world following the same patterns and topics as in the previous World Reports. The introduction (pp. xvii-xxiv) surveys the main features of antisemitism in 1995. This volume charts developments in 61 countries, identifies and compares global trends, and draws comparisons with previous years. Trends noted include racism in cyberspace, the electoral performance of the European far right, antisemitic manifestations (down since last year), laws against race hatred and Holocaust denial, and exclusivist local nationalism. SSC

Aronsfeld, Caesar C.: Holocaust "Revisionists" Are Busy in Britain. Midstream 39, 1 (Jan 1993) 28-30.

Surveys the activities of revisionist historian David Irving. Criticizes the "Sunday Times" for employing Irving as an expert on Goebbels' diaries. Leaders of British Jewry have warned the Home Secretary that there are plans to make Britain an international center for revisionist activity. Calls for enforcement of the race-hate laws and enactment of a law against group defamation. SSC

Ayass, Wolfgang; Krause-Vilmar, Dietfrid: Mit Argumenten gegen die Holocaust-Leugnung: Die Leugnung der nationalsozialistischen Massenmorde als Herausforderung fuer Wissenschaft und politische Bildung. Wiesbaden: Hessische Landeszentrale fuer Politische Bildung, 1996. 30 pp.

Traces the history of Holocaust denial and analyzes its specific arguments and its tactics. Surveys the documentary and research evidence which refutes the revisionists' allegations, warning, however, against exaggerated or unfounded statements, which play into their hands. Asserts that Holocaust denial, with its pretensions to scientific proof, influences credulous young people, and should not be ignored as in the past, but refuted on the basis of the facts. RW

Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte; Benz, Wolfgang; Neugebauer, Wolfgang, eds.: Die Auschwitzleugner: "Revisionistische" Geschichtsluege und historische Wahrheit. Berlin: Elefanten Press, 1996. 396 pp.  Based, with additions and omissions, on the collection "Wahrheit und Auschwitzluege" (Wien: Deuticke, 1995).

Partial contents: Wiesenthal, Simon: Vorwort (11-18); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: "Revisionismus" , pseudowissenschaftliche Propaganda des Rechtsextremismus (19-37); Benz, Wolfgang: "Revisionismus" in Deutschland (38-51); Wetzel, Juliane: Die Leugnung des Genozids im internationalen Vergleich (52-72); Spann, Gustav: Methoden rechtsextremer Tendenzgeschichtsschreibung und Propaganda (73-97); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die Verbrechen von Auschwitz [Includes laboratory reports showing the presence of Zyklon B in victims' hair and on gratings from the mortuaries of the crematoria.] (98-116); Id.: Leuchter und seine Epigonen (117-129); Bailer, Josef: Die "Revisionisten" und die Chemie (130-152); Distel, Barbara: Leugnung und Diffamierung: Das Krematorium des Konzentrationslagers Dachau als Beispielfuer rechtsradikale Geschichtsverfaelschung [The presence in Dachau of a crematorium and gas chamber was alleged to be a fabrication of the Allies, and the fact that they were never used for mass extermination was used to deny mass extermination by gas in other camps as well.] (153-163); Neugebauer, Wolfgang: "Revisionistische" Manipulation der Zahl der Holocaustopfer (164-169); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Das Tagebuch der Anne Frank [On proof of its authenticity.] (170-174); Neugebauer, Wolfgang: Gab es einen schriftlichen Hitlerbefehl zur Judenvernichtung? (175-181); Ueberschaer, Gerd R.: Das "Unternehmen Barbarossa" gegen die Sowjetunion , ein Praeventivkrieg? Zur Wiederbelebung der alten Rechtfertigungsversuche des deutschen Ueberfalls auf die UdSSR 1941 [Argues that the invasion was motivated by Hitler's racial ideology.] (182-205); Virchow, Fabian: "Revisionismus" und Antisemitismus am Beispiel der Frey-Presse [Especially the "Deutsche National-Zeitung."] (206-224); Dietzsch, Martin; Maegerle, Anton: Antisemitismus per Mausklick [On revisionist and antisemitic sites on the Internet.] (225-236); Wippermann, Wolfgang: "Revisionismus light": Die Modernisierung und "vergleichende Verharmlosung" des "Dritten Reiches" [Also by serious historians.] (237-251); Weusthoff, Anja: Endlich geregelt? Zur Ahndung der Holocaust-Leugnung durch die deutsche Justiz (252-272); Schmitz, Adelheid: Wenn Auschwitz geleugnet wird: Ueberlegungen fuer den schulischen Unterricht (297-317); Lasek, Wilhelm: "Revisionistische" Autoren und ihre Publikationen [A bio-bibliography.] (320-380). RW

Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte; Benz, Wolfgang; Neugebauer, Wolfgang, eds.: Wahrheit und "Auschwitzluege": Zur Bekaempfung "revisionistischer" Propaganda. Wien: Deuticke, 1995. 304 pp.  An expanded version of "Amoklauf gegen die Wirklichkeit: NS-Verbrechen und `revisionistische' Geschichtsschreibung, eds. Elisabeth Morawek, Sigrid Steininger (1992). A later revised version appeared as "Die Auschwitzleugner" (1996).

Contents: Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: "Revisionismus" , pseudowissenschaftliche Propaganda des Rechtsextremismus (16-32); Benz, Wolfgang: "Revisionismus" in Deutschland (33-45); Spann, Gustav: Methoden rechtsextremer Tendenzgeschichtsschreibung und Propaganda (46-67); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die Verbrechen von Auschwitz [Includes laboratory reports showing the presence of Zyklon B in victims' hair and on gratings from the mortuaries of the crematoria.] (68-86); Id.: Leuchter und seine Epigonen (87-98); Bailer, Josef: Die "Revisionisten" und die Chemie (99-118); Freund, Florian: Toetungen durch Giftgas in Mauthausen und Gusen (119-136); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Das sogenannte Lachout-"Dokument" (137-146); Neugebauer, Wolfgang: "Revisionistische" Manipulation der Zahl der Holocaustopfer (147-151); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Das Tagebuch der Anne Frank [On proof of its authenticity.] (152-156); Neuge, Wolfgang: Gab es einen schriftlichen Hitlerbefehl zur Judenvernichtung? (157-162); Ueberschaer, Gerd R.: Das "Unternehmen Barbarossa" gegen die Sowjetunion , ein Praeventivkrieg? Zur Wiederbelebung der alten Rechtfertigungsversuche des deutschen Ueberfalls auf die UdSSR 1941 [Argues that the invasion was motivated by Hitler's racial ideology.] (163-182); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die sogenannte "Wiedergutmachung" [On resentment aroused in Austria by Jewish demands for restitution.] (183-192); Lasek, Wilhelm: "Revisionistische" Propaganda in Oesterreich (193-206); Maegerle, Anton; Dietzsch, Martin: Das "Thule-Netzwerk": Rechtsextremistischer Mailboxen-Verbund , Verfassungsfeindliches per Modem (207-217); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die oesterreichische Rechtslage und der "Revisionismus" [Includes the text of relevant laws and treaty provisions.] (218-236); Weusthoff, Anja: Endlich geregelt? Zur Ahndung der Holocaust-Leugnung durch die deutsche Justiz [Includes the text of relevant legislation.] (237-251); Lasek, Wilhelm: "Revisionistische" Autoren und ihre Publikationen [A bio-bibliography.] (252-292). RW

Barkun, Michael: Millenarian Aspects of "White Supremacist" Movements. Terrorism and Political Violence 1, 4 (Oct 1989) 409-434.

An earlier version was presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September 1988. Examines the aggressive character and the religious foundations of radical right "white supremacist" groups in present-day America. Discusses their "Identity" theology, which includes the millenarian belief that the Second Coming of Christ is at hand; belief in white racial superiority; belief in a world Jewish conspiracy; and adoption of the model of Nazism and Holocaust denial. Suggests that the catalyst for the strong element of antisemitism in these groups may have been the recently intensified climate of millenarian expectation associated with the rise of fundamentalism. EB

Bastian, Till: Auschwitz e la "menzogna su Auschwitz": Sterminio di massa e falsificazione della storia. Trans.: Enzo Grillo. Postface: Giorgio Nebbia. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1995. 126 pp.  Originally published as "Auschwitz und die `Auschwitz-Luege': Massenmord und Geschichtsfaelschung" (Muenchen: C.H. Beck, 1994).  The Italian edition contains a postface by G. Nebbia, "L'ingegneria dello sterminio" (pp. 103-126).

Bastian, Till: Auschwitz und die "Auschwitz-Luege": Massenmord und Geschichtsfaelschung. Muenchen: C.H. Beck, 1994. 103 pp.

Sketches the history of the Final Solution and of the concentration camps from the Nazi accession to power through the Second World War. Describes in detail the construction and layout of Auschwitz, the transports and selections, the gassings, the medical experiments, and the SS personnel. Surveys the sources for knowledge of the Holocaust, including Nazi archives, the testimonies of perpetrators, and memoirs of survivors. Discusses the literature of Holocaust denial, particularly the Leuchter report, and refutes arguments which deny the existence of the gas chambers. RW

Bauer, Yehuda: Contemporary Antisemitism: Basic Facts and Trends. Encyclopaedia Judaica Year Book 1983-1985 (1985) 119-127.

An overview of antisemitism in the post-Holocaust period. Discusses the growth of neo-Nazism in Europe and the USA, Holocaust denial, Soviet antisemitism, anti-Zionism, and the fight against antisemitism by both Jewish and Christian groups. SSC

Bauer, Yehuda: Modern Antisemitism. Nes Ammim Lezingen: Gesprekken in Israel 11, 3 (1985) 4-21.

Analyzes antisemitism in the USSR, in the Arab world and in the West, including anti-Zionism and Holocaust denial. Discusses the roots of antisemitism. States that all forms of antisemitism are based on Christian models, although some antisemites are also anti-Christian.

Bell, Andrew: Against Racism and Fascism in Europe. Brussels: Socialist Group of the European Parliament, 1986. 48 pp.

Surveys fascism in Western Europe today in view of the formation of a group of extreme-right parties in the European Parliament. Stresses the link between fascism and racism and warns against small extremist parties which capitalize on economic crises. Lists extreme-right groups such as the French Front National, Italian MSI, and GRECE, emphasizing their rejection of democracy, hostility to immigrant workers, antisemitism, and their role in pushing moderate conservatives to the right. Discusses the growing internationalism of neo-Nazi groups and their propaganda activities, including Holocaust denial and the Jewish conspiracy accusation. Because of their electoral failures (France excepted), some have turned to terrorist tactics. Pp. 44-47 contain a list of right-wing organizations in Europe. AA

Benz, Wolfgang, ed.: Antisemitismus in Deutschland: Zur Aktualitaet eines Vorurteils. Muenchen: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1995. 235 pp.

Includes an article on Holocaust denial: Benz, Wolfgang: Realitaetsverweigerung als antisemitisches Prinzip: Die Leugnung des Voelkermords (121-139)

Berghe, Gie van den: De Holocaust-ontkenning [Holocaust Denial]. De Gids 152, 11 (Nov 1989) 857-866.

Demonstrates the unscientific and immoral character of revisionist theories on the Holocaust. Claims that those who deny the Holocaust are not revisionists but negationists, as they do not reinterpret the Holocaust but actually negate the facts. Gives examples from the journal of French negationists, "Annales d'Histoire Revisionniste," of vague arguments, falsifications, insinuations, selective interpretation and manipulation of source material, and rejections of eyewitness reports by Jews "because Jews are unreliable." Argues that acknowledgment of the Holocaust as resulting from antisemitism and xenophobia will hinder the rise of extreme right-wing parties. Emphasizes the existence of abundant source material with overwhelming evidence of the Nazi crimes. SRH

Berghe, Gie van den: La negation de l'extermination des Juifs dans son contexte historique. Cahiers Rationalistes 495 (May 1995) 15-25.  Translated from the Dutch. First published in the Belgian journal "L'Artichaut."

Deals with historical revisionism and negation of the Holocaust. Differentiates between these two approaches and their historical context, such as the growth of the extreme right and xenophobia, or the accusation of genocide as an argument regarding Israeli policy in the Middle East. Discusses, as well, the functionalist approach in Holocaust research, and argues that this approach does not sufficiently describe the evolution of events and that it facilitates the "arguments" of negationists. Notes the existence for many years of some unverified hypotheses, such as the number of victims in some of the extermination camps, or the myth, only recently rejected, of Nazi production of soap from human corpses. HV

Berghe, Gie van den: De uitbuiting van de Holocaust [The Exploitation of the Holocaust]. Antwerpen: Houtekiet, 1990. 196 pp.

Surveys individuals and groups of intellectuals , the negationists , who relativize, minimize, or deny the truth of the extermination camps, the gas chambers, and the Holocaust. Sketches the development from revisionism to negationism. Discerns two types of negationists: the pamphletic group which has superficial knowledge and dissociates from science, often with extreme right-wing sympathies, and the pseudo-scientific group. Discusses the methods of negationists: demagogy, propaganda, provocation, totalitarianism, decontextualization, and manipulation of sources. Relates to accusations against the authenticity of Anne Frank's diary. Sketches opinions of French left-wing negationists and the techniques of Robert Faurisson. Outlines American and European theories on the uniqueness of the Holocaust. Relates to the enormous interest in the Holocaust in the U.S. and the Jewish reaction opposing politicization and sacralization of the Holocaust. Concludes that historians have a responsibility to refute negationists' theories. SRH

Boehme, Joern: Die Luege von der "Auschwitz-Luege" und kein Ende. Zeichen13, 2 (June 1985) 10-12.  Unseen.

Bonifas, Aime: The French and the Myth of Holocaust. Remembering for the Future.Vol. II. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. Pp. 2187-2198.

Describes the development of Holocaust denial in postwar France. Paul Rassinier was preoccupied with the theme of an international Jewish conspiracy and from 1950 (until his death in 1967) he published books contending that the horrors of the camps were highly exaggerated and that the excesses which did occur were mainly the work of kapos and communists. Describes the "Faurisson Affair," marked by arguments and responses in the press between 1979-82 in which Robert Faurisson denied the existence of the gas chambers (and, by implication, the Holocaust). A series of lawsuits were brought against him on behalf of the victims of Nazism. He was always convicted, but in April 1983 the Court of Appeal in Paris suspended the proceedings, contending that the courts are not qualified to pass judgment on the worth of historical works. Discusses, also, the revisionism of the extreme-left publishing house La Vieille Taupe, the Henri Roques affair, the revival of revisionist propaganda during the Barbie trial, and other manifestations of an international movement to restore Nazism. Examines the principal points raised by revisionists and their contradiction in the available sources. SSC

Braham, Randolph L.: Antisemitism and the Holocaust in the Politics of East Central Europe. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 8, 2 (Fall 1994) 143-163.

Discusses the uses and abuses of antisemitism and the Holocaust in the region during the communist and post-communist eras. In the communist period, antisemitism was manifested in the guise of anti-Zionism; the Holocaust was either distorted or neglected completely. However, even in this period, Holocaust denial appeared in the Soviet block and attempts were made to whitewash the role of the indigenous regimes in the genocide. In the post-communist era, antisemitism and Holocaust distortion became a tool of nationalist and right-wing forces. Holocaust revisionists in East Central Europe not only minimize the Holocaust and lay the responsibility for it on Germans and other "foreigners," but also try to blame the Jews themselves, and declare the actions of local collaborators to have been "defensive measures." Antisemites blame the Jews for the evils of communism. The political leadership in these countries has failed to repulse the antisemitic rhetoric of the nationalists. DR

Braham, Randolph L.: Antiszemitizmus , es holocaust , felfogasok a posztkommunista tarsadalmakban [Approaches to Antisemitism and the Holocaust in Post-Communist Societies]. Mult es Jovo 4 (Oct 1992) 95-103.

A paper presented at an international conference held at the Ecole Normale Superieur, Paris, June 1992. Discusses contemporary post-communist societies, mainly in Russia, Romania, and Hungary, and their shift to the right. Examines the recent tendencies of revisionists to misrepresent the Holocaust. States that the denial of the Holocaust may become an obstacle in the development of parliamentary democracy in Eastern Europe. Revisionists accuse Zionists of collaboration with the Nazis, and minimalize the losses of Jews in the Holocaust. MA

Braham, Randolph L.: Historical Revisionism and the New Right. Remembering for the Future. Vol. II. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. Pp. 2093-2103.

The many neo-Nazi New Right parties, groups, and movements which have arisen in the past few decades have entered into an alliance with pseudo-intellectuals calling themselves "historical revisionists." Although their ultimate objectives vary, they are all engaged in a pernicious campaign to denigrate, distort, or deny the Holocaust and to delegitimize the State of Israel. Sketches their activities in the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe. SSC

Broszat, Martin: Nach Hitler: Der schwierige Umgang mit unserer Geschichte. Eds.: Hermann Graml, Klaus-Dietmar Henke. Muenchen: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1986. 326 pp.

A collection of 29 articles and lectures, either published or delivered between 1957-86, mainly dealing with the historiography of the Third Reich. Relates also to East German historiography, to recent Holocaust denial literature, and to several TV series on the Holocaust. SSC

Capitanchik, David; Whine, Michael: The Governance of Cyberspace: Racism on the Internet. Institute for Jewish Policy Research: Policy Paper 2 (July 1996) 16 pp.

Discusses current debates about free speech on the Internet and the issues raised by its exploitation by antisemitic and racist groups. Regarding the far right and the Internet, states that Holocaust denial is the link which binds many far right organizations. Arguments in favor of unrestricted speech on the Internet have to be weighed against the evidence of its abuse, albeit by a small minority. There are signs of continuing and increasing racism, xenophobia, intolerance, and bigotry across the world. If it is impossible to restrict what goes on the Internet, there is a strong case for restrictions on what comes off it. New software initiatives are designed to permit censorship at grass-roots level. Another development is that the Internet itself is increasingly being used to assert historical truths to counter racist lies. Presents policy proposals to be adopted by institutions to determine what materials can legitimately be accessed on their computers. SSC

Caplan, Marc: Hitler's Apologists: The Anti-Semitic Propaganda of Holocaust "Revisionism." New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1993. 86 pp.

Examines the views of Holocaust deniers in the USA, Canada, France, and other countries , e.g. David Irving, Fred Leuchter, Bradley Smith, David McCalden, Ernst Zundel, Robert Faurisson. Dwells on some revisionist institutions, such as the Institute for Historical Review and the German-American National Political Action Committee. Antisemitism and anti-Zionism occupy a prominent place in the revisionists' views. Many deniers identify with neo-Nazism. Examines also the views of some "trivializers," such as Ernst Nolte, Arno Mayer, and James Bacque, who try to reinterpret the Nazis' motives for the genocide of the Jews or to equate it with the Stalinist purges or with Israeli reactions to the Intifada. In recent years Holocaust denial has arisen in post-communist Eastern Europe and in the Muslim world. DR

Carb, Alison B.; Schwartz, Alan M.: Holocaust "Revisionism" , a Denial of History: An Update. ADL Facts 31, 1 (Win 1986) 17 pp.

Holocaust denial is an important weapon of antisemitic extremist groups in their efforts to delegitimize Israel, rehabilitate Nazism, and prove that Zionists manipulate the media and other institutions. Surveys the background, personnel, and activities of the Institute for Historical Review (Torrance, CA), a major center of Holocaust denial. In 1985-86 the Holocaust denial movement suffered legal defeats and financial losses. The Zundel and Keegstra trials in Canada ended in convictions, but also allowed them free publicity in the uncritical Canadian press. Mentions other activities of the movement in 1985, including links with Saudi Arabia, the USSR, and Black extremist antisemitic groups. LF

Cass, Mike: The West German Law Makers. Canadian Jewish Outlook 23, 6 (June 1985) 4, 12.

Criticizes the West German Bundestag for its delays in passing a law against Holocaust denial. The law eventually passed describes Holocaust denial as an insult to survivors rather than as a criminal offence. Thus, the state cannot prosecute offenders; only the Jews can.

Chombart de Lauwe, Marie-Jose: Vigilance: Vieilles traditions extremistes et droites nouvelles. Paris: Ligue des Droits de l'Homme, Etudes et Documentation Internationales, 1986. 170 pp.

Surveys postwar extreme-right groups in France, such as Nouvelle Ecole, a breakaway group from GRECE, Le Club de l'Horloge, a right-wing think-tank, and, above all, the Front National of Jean-Marie Le Pen. The historical models of the extreme-right are Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, and other dictatorial regimes, and they have links with other extremist organizations in Europe. Points to the banalization of fascism and to historical revisionism, including Holocaust deni, as major causes for the strengthening of the extreme-right with its xenophobic, raci, and often antisemitic tendencies. AA

Clarke, Tamsin: Denying the Holocaust. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 8, 2 (1994) 103-142.

Examines the nature and purposes of Holocaust denial, its technique and potential effects. These purposes and effects have been misunderstood by the public, even by judicial circles. Holocaust denial is not an academic school, but a type of "hate propaganda," aiming to harm the victims, undermine the legitimacy of Israel, and justify racism. The methods used by the revisionists are far from scholarly: they include not only manipulations of facts, but even their fabrication. States that Holocaust denial must be prosecuted by the courts in the countries where hate propaganda is considered a criminal act. Criticizes, also, use of the term "Holocaust": it has theological implications, and emphasizes the inexplicability and uniqueness of this kind of genocide; it prompts politicians to abuse the term for political purposes. DR

Collotti, Enzo: Leggendo il revisionismo in Primo Levi. Belfagor 44, 1 (Jan 1989) 98-102.

Traces two forms of revisionism in Holocaust historiography , denial that the genocide took place and German historians' trend towards historicization and relativization of the Holocaust (the "historians' debate") , and examines Primo Levi's views on both phenomena. Levi's last articles and essays referred explicitly to revisionist distortions. He emphasized the uniqueness of the Nazi concentration camp and Nazi extermination policy, as expressions of the Nazi plan to annihilate entire peoples and cultures. Levi saw the German people as guilty for their silence and passivity in the face of Nazi crimes. LV

Comte, Bernard: Le genocide nazi et les negationnistes. Historiens & Geographes 84 [339] (1993) 141-150.  Unseen. Deals with Holocaust denial in France.

Constantinescu, Ioan: Despre exegeza extremei drepte romanesti: Insemnari polemice [On the Exegesis of the Romanian Extreme Right: Polemical Notes]. Iasi: Junimea, 1998. 176 pp.

A polemical analysis of some recent revisionist and apologetic studies on the Romanian fascist Iron Guard, written by historians and publicists (e. g. Gheorge Buzatu, Radu Theodoru). Extremist leaders and politicians of the interwar period (A.C. Cuza, C. Codreanu) are exonerated of any fascist and antisemitic tendencies. Describes the efforts of the new pro-Iron Guard supporters to present the national poet Mihai Eminescu as a forerunner of the Romanian fascist movement. Mentions frequent cases of Holocaust denial in the Romanian extremist press, supported by some pro-Iron Guard historians. LV

Cotler, Irwin: Nazi War Crimes: An International Legal Responsibility. Patterns of Prejudice 20, 4 (Oct 1986) 31-41.

The author represented the Canadian Jewish Congress before the Deschenes Commission appointed to investigate the entry of suspected Nazi war criminals to Canada. Argues for the continued prosecution of war criminals in Canada, the USA, and Great Britain for four main reasons: fidelity to the rule of law, so that no murderer should go unpunished; fidelity to citizenship which should not be acquired under false pretenses; fidelity to international obligations and to U.N. resolutions; and fidelity to Holocaust remembrance as a challenge to the Holocaust denial movement. The Commission also exposed government indifference to the existence of Nazi war criminals in Canada and a deliberate policy of preventing their prosecution. LF

Dalrymple, James: Holocaust Lies of the New Nazis. British Journal of Holocaust Education 1, 2 (Win 1992) 202-212.  Appeared in the "Sunday Times News Review" (26 July 1992).

Surveys the upsurge of Holocaust denial in Europe and America as a vital element of neo-fascism, giving examples from various countries. Asserts that the most effective refutation is the reality of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and describes his own visit to the site in July 1992. RW

Davies, Alan Trewartha: A Tale of Two Trials: Antisemitism in Canada 1985. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 4, 1 (1989) 77-88.

In 1985 two antisemites were brought to trial in Canada: James Keegstra, an Alberta high school teacher, and Ernst Zundel from Toronto. Compares the similarities and differences in their views. Keegstra is a Protestant fundamentalist and an antisemitic conservative, influenced by Nesta Webster's writings and the antisemitic literature of the 19th century. He believes in the Jewish world conspiracy and the subversiveness of the Talmud, and denies the Holocaust. Zundel, originally from Germany, is first and foremost a Holocaust denier, who produced and disseminated his own revisionist writings. He is a racist and a worshipper of Nazi Germany, aiming to restore "Germany's honor." Both Keegstra and Zundel are examples of an extreme form of willful self-deception; they represent small groups in the Canadian population predisposed to antisemitism. DR

Douglas, Lawrence: The Memory of Judgement: The Law, the Holocaust, and Denial. History & Memory 7, 2 (Fall-Win 1996) 100-120.

Examines problems in the use of law to safeguard the history of the Holocaust, to preserve its memory, and to silence the voice of Holocaust denial. Applications of the law against Holocaust denial or trivialization (e.g. the Zundel case in Canada, and cases in Germany and France), as well as war crimes trials, show that a court trial cannot ascertain historical truth , it is not a "truth-seeking device" in relation to historical facts , because it approaches the past from a position of formal agnosticism, and its use of historical testimony is limited. Holocaust deniers can appeal to the principle of freedom of speech and use the same methods and rhetoric as their prosecutors, which may lead not only to their acquittal, but also to distortions of history, as the Zundel case showed. DR

Dworkin, Ronald: The Unbearable Cost of Liberty. Index on Censorship 24, 3 (May-June 1995) 43-46.

Discusses the issue of Holocaust denial vs. free speech. Refers to the case of Guenter Deckert, leader of the ultra-right-wing National Democratic Party in Germany, who organized a meeting in 1991 where Fred Leuchter presented research purporting to show that the gassing of Jews in Auschwitz never took place. Deckert was tried and convicted under a statute prohibiting incitement to racial hatred. In March 1994, the Federal Court of Justice overturned the conviction on the ground that denying the Holocaust does not constitute incitement, and ordered a retrial to determine whether the defendant sympathized with Nazi beliefs. Deckert was convicted, but got a suspended jail sentence and a light fine. Following public protest, the German constitutional court then declared that denial of the Holocaust is not protected by free speech. Opposes this exception to the German Constitution's guarantee of free speech. Allows that savage antisemitic crimes are committed in Germany, as well as crimes against immigrants, but the new ruling will not prevent such attacks from occurring, and meantime it condones censorship. SSC

Eilati, Naftali: Historical Revisionism and Denial of the Holocaust. Shana be-Shana (5754 = 1993) 408-418. (In Hebrew)

Discusses Holocaust revisionism and Holocaust denial in general, and in particular the works of Pierre Vidal-Naquet, especially "Les assassins de la memoire" (Paris: La Decouverte, 1987). LFo

Einhorn, Maurice: "Vlan" sur la verite. Regards 153 (9-23 Jan 1986) 20-21.

Between February-December 1985, "Vlan," a Belgian magazine, published an exchange of readers' letters which turned into a campaign of Holocaust denial. The editor of the magazine refused to halt the campaign, arguing that to do so would be censorship, and that the correspondence was presented as an attempt to discover the historical truth about the Holocaust. LF

Elliott, Mark; McClintock, Michael: Holocaust "Revisionists" and the California Library Association. Midstream 32, 4 (Apr 1986) 36-38.

In December 1984, David McCalden, publisher of the Noontide Press which distributes Nazi Ku Klux Klan propaganda, who has headed the Institute for Historical Review, was invited to participate in the California Library Association's annual conference in a programon "Free Speech and the Holocaust." Several non-Jewish members of the organization objected and his participation was cancelled. He threatened the CLA with a lawsuit, claiming that his right to free speech was being denied, even though the CLA is a private organization. Although most local Jewish, Christian, and ethnic organizations protested McCalden's appearance, library journals focused on the issue of free speech and the pressure on the CLA, obscuring McCalden's virulent antisemitism. LF

Erb, Rainer: Antisemitismus und Antizionismus. Tribuene 146 (1998) 169-179.

Deals with prejudices and cliches concerning Jews which have become prevalent in Germany in the 1990s, and are consolidating into a growing antisemitic ideology. While an individual antisemite generally keeps his views to himself, parties or organizations must publicize their convictions. Thus, with the foundation of every new right-wing party, perceptible antisemitism increases. Enumerates various polemics against Jews and the State of Israel, verbal attacks against Jews, historical lies, etc. Mentions that among 2,500 acts of violence committed by Skinheads in 1992, there were nine arsons at Jewish institutions, seven bodily injuries to Jews, 33 cases of vandalism, 57 threats of violence, 104 cemetery desecrations, and 256 propaganda offenses. Reports on a serious increase in antisemitic propaganda material since 1990, propagating Holocaust denial and the myth of a world Jewish conspiracy. States that in former West Germany there are twice as many right-wing voters as in former East Germany. ID

Fischel, Jack R.: The New Anti-Semitic Axis: Holocaust Denial, Black Nationalism, and the Crisis on Our College Campuses. Virginia Quarterly Review 71, 2 (Spr 1995) 210-226.

Antisemitism was always maintained by a human propensity for myths, especially myths of conspiracy, and by the willingness to accept facile answers to difficult questions. Antisemites in the U.S., both Black nationalists and Holocaust deniers, appeal to the same human traits, and have themselves produced a host of myths. College campuses throughout the U.S. are especially receptive to their propaganda. Strategies used by modern antisemites to conquer this constituency, besides production of emotional myths, are the deconstructionist critique of historical texts (including eyewitness accounts) and the abuse of multicultural programs. Their success demonstrates a slow erosion of "faith" in the rules of evidence and logic on many campuses. College and university administrations must guard the campuses against bigoted spokesmen; historians must become more vocal in combating the deniers and myth-producers who damage the profession of historian. DR

Francq, Henry G.: Hitler's Holocaust: A Fact of History. Vancouver, B.C.: New Star Books, 1986. 255 pp.

An account of the Holocaust, intended as an answer to Holocaust denial propaganda, especially that of Ernst Zundel who was tried in Canada in 1985. The foreword and introduction (pp. 17-40) discuss the sources of Zundel's claims and analyze his arguments, falsified statistics, and distortions of witnesses' accounts. Pp. 41-51, "Prelude to Genocide," discuss Nazi antisemitic policy up to 1939. The rest of the book describes the implementation of the Final Solution policy, based on historians' and survivors' accounts and evidence from war crimes trials. LF

Francq, Henry G.: A Study of Guilt: The Eichmann Story. London, Ont.: Third Eye, 1991. xiv, 286 pp.

Based on Eichmann's interrogations and the protocols of his trial, relates Eichmann's activities in connection with the implementation of the destruction of European Jewry. Arguing against Paul Rassinier and other revisionist historians, shows that Eichmann was in no way "a small cog" in the SS machinery, responsible only for the transportation of the victims. Eichmann had full knowledge of their destination and took part in the responsibility for the killing process, including gassing in Auschwitz, mass shootings, and the death marches in 1945. Pp. 191-222 examine the arguments in Rassinier's books and disprove them. DR

Fresco, Nadine: Parcours du ressentiment: Pseudo-histoire et theorie sur mesure dans le "revisionnisme" francais. History and Theory 28, 2 (1989) 173-197.

Argues that French historical revisionism evolved as an attempt to liberate the Western conscience from the oppression caused by the genocide of the Jews. Mentions the contribution of two founders of French Holocaust revisionism, Maurice Bardeche and Paul Rassinier, and their influence on Robert Faurisson, Henri Roques, and other right-wing revisionists. Discusses the main arguments and tendencies of the extreme-left revisionists (Pierre Guillaume and the La Vieille Taupe group). Their Marxist explanation of the Holocaust, during the 1960s, implied that the Jews were eliminated by the German capitalists since they belonged to the petty and middle bourgeoisie and were considered useless to the processes of production. Later they also argued that the gas chambers did not exist. Affirms that the spread of revisionist theories and of Holocaust denial has been encouraged by current antisemitic and anti-Israel tendencies in France. LV

Friedlaender, Saul: Reflections of Nazism: An Essay on Kitsch and Death. Trans.: Thomas Weyr. New York: Harper and Row, 1984. 141 pp.  Originally published as "Reflets du Nazisme" (Paris: Seuil, 1982). Also appeared in paperback (New York: Avon Books, 1986).

An analysis of the "new discourse" on Nazism as reflected in recent films (e.g. Fassbinder, Syberberg), novels (e.g. Steiner, Tournier) and biographies (e.g. Speer), in which the worst aspects of Nazism are neutralized. Historians, too, distort the images of Hitler and Nazism, and also the image of the Jew, whether they are revisionists who deny the Holocaust or Marxists who minimize the role of antisemitism and the Final Solution in Nazi ideology. Studying the present-day phenomenon sheds light on the hold that Nazism and Hitler had on the popular imagination in Germany during the Nazi era.

Funkenstein, Amos: History, Counter-History and Narrative. Alpayim 4 (1991) 206-223. (In Hebrew)

Discusses forms in which history has been transmitted from ancient times until the present, history as narrative, and problems arising from the attempt to define what are "facts" and what constitutes "reality." Counter-history is a form of historical narrative used throughout the centuries against opponents, consisting generally of inauthentic narrative, and it is dangerous and destructive. Analyzes examples, such as Manetho against the Jews, Augustine against the Romans, medieval Jewry against Christianity ("Toledoth Yeshu"), Christians against Judaism, Protestants against Catholicism, Marx against liberals and capitalism. Pp. 218-221 discuss the Nazi revisionist view of Jewish history and present-day Holocaust denial. Counter-history attacks the identity of the Other by creating a dangerous false "reality." Concludes that the result must inevitably be the self-destruction of the creator(s) of counter-history because their own identity is based on negation of the enemy. If they win the battle, they will be destroyed together with their victim. SSC

Gesher Symposium on the Resurgence of Antisemitism. Gesher 122 (Win 1990-1991) 17-32; 123 (Sum 1991) 39-49. (In Hebrew)

The journal presented a list of questions to Jewish communal leaders and thinkers in Israel and abroad regarding present-day antisemitism. The questions were: 1) What are the main social, economic, spiritual and political factors of resurgent antisemitism and what is the meaning of its threat for Jews in a particular country and for the Jewish people in general? 2) How should this problem be addressed? Should the reaction be limited to Jewish organizations or should one encourage a wider coalwith non-Jewish bodies willing to help fight antisemitism? 3) How is the resurgent antisemitism different from other forms of racism and prejudice? 4) What role can the State of Israel play in the fight against antisemitism? Can cooperation between Israel and the Diaspora be ensured, and how? What influence does the new antisemitism have on Ziideology? 5) To what extent does extreme-right antisemitism, and sometimes extreme-left, coincide with anti-Israel positions? 6) What is the place of Holocaust denial in today's wave of antisemitism? The respondents were: Nathan Rotenstreich, Isi J. Leibler, Immanuel Jakobovits, Alfred Y. Gottschalk, Henry L. Feingold, Milton Himmelfarb, Abraham H. Foxman, W.D. Rubinstein. SSC

Giordano, Ralph: Wird Deutschland wieder gefaehrlich? Mein Brief an Kanzler Kohl , Ursachen und Folgen. Koeln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1993. 272 pp.

Giordano discusses his reasons for publishing, on 23 November 1992, an open letter to Chancellor Kohl declaring that Jews in Germany, survivors of the Holocaust, felt unsafe in the prevailing atmosphere of violence, xenophobia, and antisemitism, and advocating that they be ready for armed self-defense. Asserts that German failure to deal with the past and prosecute war criminals made possible the present wave of neo-Nazism and Holocaust relativization or denial. Presents a selection of the letters received in response: some expressing solidarity, others blatantly neo-Nazi and antisemitic, comparing German guilt with that of the Israelis towards the Palestinians or threatening the author with death. RW

Giordano, Ralph: Die zweite Schuld oder, Von der Last Deutscher zu sein. Hamburg: Rasch und Roehring, 1987. 368 pp.

The guilt complex of contemporary Germans is attributed to two factors: crimes committed during the Nazi regime, and their denial and repression. Analyzes the psychological causes of the latter, contending that true denazification has not yet occurred. Describes efforts made to minimize or deny the Holocaust. Pp. 342-352, "Ist Auschwitz Vergleichbar?," restates arguments raised in the "historians' debate." States that Germans have no right to criticize Zionism and Israel or to compare them to Nazism. MR

Graml, Hermann: Auschwitzluege und Leuchter-Bericht. Tribuene 134 (1995) 137-146.  Appeared also in "Taeter , Opfer , Folgen" (1995).

Argues that the Holocaust is an indisputable historical fact, known to a large number of Germans already at the time of its perpetration, and recorded in innumerable documents, memoirs, and testimonies given at war crimes trials. As long as its memory was fresh, even the radical right did not dare deny it; but since about 1970 this has changed. Neo-Nazis need to deny the Holocaust in order to dissociate themselves from this universally abhorred element of the ideology they wish to propagate. Their publications ignore the documentary sources, or try to represent them as forged. Asserts that although these absurd claims are unlikely to convince most readers, the legislation that now makes Holocaust denial a punishable offense is to be welcomed. RW

Greene, Wallace: The Holocaust Hoax: A Rejoinder. Jewish Social Studies 46, 3-4 (Sum-Fall 1984) 263-276.

A refutation of the allegations of the "Journal of Historical Review" and other revisionist publications which claim that the Holocaust was a myth and that a conspiracy exists to prevent that truth being known. Brings evidence from captured German documents. "A staggering array of documents" is available tracing every stage in the building and operation of the extermination camps.

Gutman, Yisrael: The Denial of the Holocaust and Its Consequences. Remembering for the Future. Vol. I-II. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. Pp. 2116-2124.

Discusses some of the false information and arguments put forward by Holocaust deniers and shows how they can be refuted by existing evidence and testimonies. But lately, well-known historians have been contributing, whether consciously or unconsciously, to the phenomenon of denial. Mentions, in this regard, works by David Irving, Helmut Diwald, A.J.P. Taylor, the intentionalist-functionalist debate, and the "historians' debate." One must differentiate between legitimate historical interpretations and the campaign to present the Holocaust as a Jewish invention, but the ambiguity of some scholars arouses concern. SSC

Gutman, Yisrael: Denying the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism; Shazar Library, 1985. 46 pp. (Study Circle on World Jewry in the Home of the President of Israel, 13 May 1984).  Appeared simultaneously in Hebrew.

Discusses the development of the Holocaust denial phenomenon , the methods, the motives, the leaders, the audience, and the Jewish reaction. The essence of the denial is directed against Zionism and Israel, though the thrust of the assault is directed against the entire Jewish people; it seeks to delegitimize the Jews and Zionism by identifying them with racism.

Gutman, Yisrael: El Holocausto: Que se esconde detras del intento de desmentirlo. Rumbos 20 (June 1987) 40-54.

Describes various aspects of the Holocaust, including Nazi racism and antisemitism, the behavior of Jewish leaders, the resistance, and the connection between the Holocaust and the creation of the State of Israel. Discusses the postwar phenomenon of Holocaust denial, with its complex system of propaganda spread by individuals and pseudo-scientific groups in leaflets, periodicals, lectures, and congresses. Their main assertion is that the extermination camps did not exist and that the evidence is the result of a Zionist plot to discredit Germany. Neo-Nazi groups are the most dangerous and are well-supplied with funds from veteran Nazis and Arab sources. BS

Haupt, Peter I.: A Universe of Lies: Holocaust Revisionism and the Myth of a Jewish World-Conspiracy. Patterns of Prejudice 25, 1 (Sum 1991) 75-85.

Analyzes Arthur R. Butz's "The Hoax of the Twentieth Century" (1976), which contends that the numbers of those killed in the Holocaust are unreliable since both pre- and postwar statistics were supplied by Jews and communists. Similarly, he claims that extermination camps were only work camps and that postwar tribunals (e.g. the Nuremberg Tribunal) are unreliable since they were part of an Allied propaganda campaign. Butz contends that the Allies were manipulated into disseminating the Holocaust myth in 1944 due to Zionist attempts to establish the State of Israel, and that the Jews continued to benefit from this myth. Haupt states that despite differences between "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and Holocaust revisionism, they both see totalitarianism, with its "universe of lies" as the ultimate threat, and they hold the Jews responsible. However, revisionists feel they must prove that the Holocaust never happened, not only to demonstrate Jewish power, but to deny Jewish impotence (i.e. that they were victims of the Final Solution). LC

Hayward, Joel Stuart: Holocaust Revisionism in New Zealand: The "Thinking Man's Anti-Semitism?" Without Prejudice 4 (Dec 1991) 38-49.

Discusses manifestations of Holocaust revisionism in New Zealand since it first appeared in the 1970s. Contends that, in contrast to grass-roots level neo-fascists (who do believe that the Holocaust occurred), organized neo-fascist groups support Holocaust revisionism; nevertheless, their influence is limited. But institutions such as Western Destiny Publications and the New Zealand League of Rights do pose a threat to the public at large. Their increasingly energetic publication and dissemination of revisionist material, and especially their covert methods (e.g. publication under the guise of supporting "free speech") trap unsuspecting readers and can influence them to hate Jews. Advises Jews to continue to present the facts of the Holocaust to Christians as a way to combat Holocaust revisionism, rather than take legal action. LC

Hentges, Gudrun; Kempfert, Guy; Kuehnl, Reinhard, eds.: Antisemitismus: Geschichte , Interessenstruktur , Aktualitaet. Heilbronn: Distel, 1995. 190 pp.

Includes article on Holocaust denial: Obermueller, Klara: Die "Auschwitz-Luege" (153-168).

Hill, Leonidas Edwin: The Trial of Ernst Zundel: Revisionism and the Law in Canada. Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 6 (1989) 165-219.

Examines the proceedings of the trials of Ernst Zundel, a German citizen with a "landed immi-grant" status in Canada. Zundel was prosecuted by the Crown in 1and 1988 for publication of pamphlets denying the Holocaust, under section 177 of the Canadian Criminal Code which states that it is a criminal offense for anyone to promote hatred which he knows is false and which also causes injury to the public interest. Although Zundel was found guilty at both trials, only the second one specified that he spread hatred deliberately. LC

Hirsch, Herbert: History and the Politics of Memory: Rewriting the Holocaust. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 8, 1 (1994) 95-111.

Identifies five techniques employed by Holocaust "revisionists": denial, creation of myths, shifting blame (by exonerating the perpetrators), rationalization, and relativization by comparing the Holocaust to other events. The goal of this type of literature is not academic debate, but political manipulation of memory. The mechanisms of commemoration (through art and literature, and public ceremonies) may help to fight revision and denial. LV

Hockenos, Paul: Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. New York: Routledge, 1993. x, 332 pp.

A detailed account of extreme-right and neo-Nazi movements in Eastern Europe after the fall of the communist regimes. Surveys the activities and propaganda of the Skinheads and neo-Nazi groups in East and West Germany, before and after the unification, and similar extremist groups in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Focuses on the xenophobic and antisemitic stands of the Hungarian writer and politician Istvan Csurka, and the antisemitic press in Hungary and Romania. Discusses forms of Holocaust denial in Romania and Croatia, provoked by the new cult of I. Antonescu and by the Croatian president Tudjman's tendency to contest the massacres of Jews in the Croatian concentration camps during World War II. Ch. 8 (pp. 271-299), "Anti-Semitism without Jews," focuses on the re-emergence of anti-Jewish myths and stereotypes in Eastern Europe, especially the alleged Jewish conspiracy for world domination, now represented, in antisemitic propaganda, by the International Monetary Fund. LV

Hodara, Raquel: Denial of the Holocaust. Kivunim 37 (Nov 1987) 123-145.]  Appeared in Spanish in "Rumbos" 16 (1986). (In Hebrew)

Summarizes arguments expressed in the Holocaust denial literature published since 1946, and the motives and methodology of the Holocaust deniers (including the Nazi cover-up during the Holocaust). The main motive is antisemitism, followed by racism and anti-communism. Suggests ways to fight this phenomenon, through public and legal action on the one hand, and education and academic research on the other. SSC

Hodara, Raquel: El intento de negacion del Holocausto. Rumbos 16 (June 1986) 15-45.  Appeared in Hebrew in "Kivunim" 37 (1987).

Holz, Klaus; Mueller, Elfriede: Die Affaere Roger Garaudy/Abbe Pierre: Bemerkungen zum Revisionismus in Frankreich. Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung 6 (1997) 148-159.

Analyzes revisionism and Holocaust denial in France since the 1950s, and the recent pronouncements of the well-known priest Abbe Pierre in support of the revisionist Garaudy as a step toward their legitimation. Garaudy, in his book "Les mythes fondateurs de la politique israelienne" (1996), asserts, like Paul Rassinier and other revisionists of the radical left and right before him, that the "myth" of the Holocaust was propagated by the Zionists in order to cover up their genocide of the Palestinians. Sees Holocaust denial, from the beginning, as part of an effort to rehabilitate the French nation by exonerating it of guilt for Vichy collaboration with the Nazis. RW

Huerta, Carlos C.: Holocaust Revisionism in the Classroom. Ten Da'at 5, 2 (Spr 1991) 5-6.

Contends that Jewish high-school and college students should be taught who the Holocaust revisionists are, their methods, and their literature. Watching sad and moving film footage does not prepare the Jewish student to confront the arguments of Holocaust deniers whose influence is growing. It is imperative that courses for high-school teachers on the Holocaust include exposure and responses to revisionist theories. SSC

Huerta, Carlos C.: Revisionist Literature: Its Place in Holocaust Literature and Its Role in Teaching the Holocaust. Conservative Judaism 47, 1 (Fall 1994) 19-26.

Asserts that in recent years Holocaust denial has become a real problem, especially in the USA, and pleads for introducing "revisionist" literature in the study of the Holocaust. Not exposing students to this kind of literature, which has penetrated American university campuses, leaves them open to the deniers' arguments when they are eventually encountered. Surveys briefly the main revisionist authors (e.g. Mark Weber, Robert Faurisson, Fred A. Leuchter) and the methods of spreading their propaganda. Suggests concrete ways to teach the revisionists' technique of misusing historical documents. LV

Inowlocki, Lena: Leugnen ohne Absicht? Zum Hamburger Freispruch fuer das Behaupten eines "Auschwitzmythos." Babylon 16-17 (Oct 1996) 15-34.

Traces the history of German legislation against Holocaust denial and the ensuing judicial decisions. Refutes the argument that this legislation is an infringement on freedom of opinion. Contends that reasoned judicial opinions on this matter serve an important educational function: the rhetoric of Holocaust denial implies that the individual has the power to determine what is true, and this makes it especially attractive to young people. Analyzes a recorded message disseminated in March 1994 over a private telephone service in Hamburg, complaining that the film "Schindler's List" perpetuated the "Auschwitz myth." The perpetrators were brought to trial. The court, disregarding the neo-Nazi context of the message, held that "myth" did not necessarily mean "lie," and exonerated the accused. RW

Is There a Cure for Anti-Semitism? Partisan Review 61, 3 (Sum 1994) 368-465.

A transcript of a public debate held in May 1994 in New York. Among the participants were Saul Bellow, Stanley Crouch, Eugene Genovese, John Gross, Cynthia Ozick, Martin Peretz, Norman Podhoretz, James Sleeper, and Robert Wistrich. The speeches and discussion focused on the essence of antisemitism and its history, current forms of antisemitism in the USA, especially the increase of anti-Jewish rhetoric among intellectuals and leaders of the Black community (e.g. Louis Farrakhan, Leonard Jeffries), aspects of anti-Zionism and Holocaust denial, as well as an examination of appropriate forms to contend with antisemitism. LV

Jaeckel, Eberhard: David Irving's Hitler: A Faulty History Dissected: Two Essays. Trans. and comments: H. David Kirk. Port Angeles, WA: Ben-Simon Publications, 1993. 58 pp.

Translation of two essays from the collection "Im Kreuzfeuer: Der Fernsehfilm `Holocaust'," eds. Peter Maertesheimer, Ivo Frevel (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1979). Earlier abbreviated versions of the essays appeared in the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung," 25 August 1977 and 22 June 1978. Kirk's introduction (pp. 5-16), "The Nazi Stake in Faulty History," and his postscript (pp. 39-54) deal with Irving's place as a "revisionist historian" influencing Holocaust denial, and trace his technique of distorting historical truth, similar to the means used by Nazi propaganda. Jaeckel's essays, written to counter Irving's false allegations, are entitled: "Refutation of the Absurd Thesis That `Hitler Is Innocent in the Murder of Europe's Jews'" (pp. 17-33) and "Once More , Irving, Hitler and the Murder of the Jews" (pp. 34-38). LV

Jones, Jeremy: Holocaust Revisionism in Australia. Without Prejudice 4 (Dec 1991) 50-56.

Antisemitism in Australia today is expressed through Holocaust revisionism which takes three forms: denial thathe Jews were victims of the Nazis' systematic genocide; the assertion that the murder of the Jews was a result of the collaboration of Jewish (or Zionist) leaders with the Nazis; trivialization of the Nazis' crimes and distortion of the Arab-Israeli conflict by comparing Israelis with Nazis. Describes Australian revisionist activities, and contends that the third form is the most widespread and potentially dangerous, because it is the mostsocially acceptable. Mentions particularly the Holocaust denial activities of Melbourne lawyer John Bennett and the views of the British revisionist historian David Irving. Concludes with suggestions for ways to combat revisionism. LC

Jones, Mitchell: The Leuchter Report: A Dissection. Cedar Park, TX: 21st Century Logic, 1992. 86 pp.

Based on the author's correspondence with the Holocaust denier Louis Rollins between 1988-91, in which they discussed the "Leuchter Report." In 1988 Fred Leuchter travelled to Auschwitz to gather evidence in support of the legal defense of Ernst Zundel. Leuchter conducted laboratory tests on a sample of material he brought from the camp and concluded that the poison gas "Zyklon B" could not have been used in the gas chambers. Jones refutes Leuchter's arguments and shows that antisemitism underlies them. He calls for responding to revisionists' assertions by counter-arguments and not by emotional reactions, not to ban them, and not to ignore them completely. Contends that the lack of rebuttal by scholars gives respectability to the revisionists' theories and helps them to recruit followers. DR

Un jugement du tribunal de grande instance de Paris. Le Monde Juif 137 (Jan-Mar 1990) 1-5.  Appeared also in "Sens" 42, 5 (1990) 246-250.

Publishes the judgment of the High Court of Paris in the defamation lawsuit of Robert Faurisson against Georges Wellers and the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine, for naming him as a "history falsifier." Asserting the validity of the defense's claim that Faurisson's theories contradict historical truth as well as Nazi documents concerning the Final Solution, the court rejected Faurisson's suit and sentenced him to pay the costs of the trial. LV

Kakutani, Michiko: Quando a vitima e a historia [When the Victim Is the History]. Heranca Judaica 87 (Dec 1993) 9-15.  Translated from "The New York Times," 30 April 1993.

Discusses the problem of the recent growth of historical revisionism and Holocaust denial in Europe and the United States. States that a growing ignorance of the historical facts among the general public and the manipulation of the media which allows the rewriting of every truth are fertile ground for Holocaust denial. Other influencing factors: relativization by those who criticize "unrepresentation" of other victims of World War II, and deconstructionism as a theory preaching the relativity of all significance or truth. AA

Kaplan, Jeffrey: Right Wing Violence in North America. Terrorism and Political Violence 7, 1 (Spr 1995) 44-95.

Offers a brief typology of the organizations and ideologies represented in American radical right movements; dwells on such movements as the KKK, Christian Identity, neo-Nazi groups, neopagan Odinists, the Church of the Creator, the tax protest movement, and Holocaust deniers. The ideologies of all of these groups include racism and antisemitism, the latter often in a religious form. Using Ehud Sprinzak's theory of split delegitimization, explores factors which may be responsible for catalyzing right-wing violence. Shows the reaction of groups such as the ADL and the American Jewish Committee, as well as of the state, to radical right activities. DR

Kashtan, Rivka; Friedman, Violeta: "To Remember Does Not Mean to Hate." Hadoar 70, 27 (19 July 1991) 17-19. (In Hebrew)

An interview with Violeta Friedman, a survivor of Auschwitz now living in Spain, which took place in April 1990. Five years before, she had brought a libel suit against Leon Degrelle (the Belgian Nazi leader who found asylum in Spain) for denying the existence of the gas chambers. She lost the suit on the basis that it was not a libel directed against her personally. Friedman then took the issue of Holocaust denial to the Constitutional Court of Spain where it is still pending. She lectures frequently to Spanish audiences about the Holocaust and its consequences, and deplores the increase of neo-Nazism in Spain. SSC

Kaye, Ephraim: "Holocaust Denial" , a Marginal Phenomenon or a Real Danger? Yalkut Moreshet 63 (May 1997) 15-47. (In Hebrew)

Discusses categories of Nazi, Soviet, Polish, and Jewish documents and publications (e.g. memoranda, reports, diaries, memoirs, testimonies, trial proceedings) which elucidate the Holocaust and defy the arguments of the Holocaust deniers. Contests attempts to relate Holocaust denial to historical revisionism; regards it as an antisemitic phenomenon. Surveys and analyzes the history of Holocaust denial since World War II, discussing the activities, written works, and arguments of its leading figures. Summarizes essential data regarding Holocaust denial for the guidance of those who might be confused by its pseudo-scientific guise. LFo

Klarsfeld, Serge, ed.: Memoire du genocide: Un recueil de 80 articles du "Monde Juif." Paris: Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine; Association "Les Fils et Filles des Deportes Juifs de France", 1987. 702 pp.

A collection of articles which appeared in "Le Monde Juif" between 1946-86, dealing with the persecution of Jews in France, Italy, and Tunisia during the war; attempts to save Jews in various countries (e.g. the Netherlands, Greece, Denmark, Bulgaria, Finland); Jewish resistance; the attitude of the Vatican; trials of Nazi war criminals; and responses to Holocaust denial. HV

Knoller, Rivkah: The Phenomenon of Holocaust Denial. Mahanaim 9 (Nov 1994) 238-247.]  Appeared also in the "Bulletin of the Arnold and Leona Finkler Institute of Holocaust Research" 7 (Aug 1996). (In Hebrew)

Gives a brief survey of the history of Holocaust denial and comments on the major figures and their main arguments. Also describes their action strategies and their supporters. States that the oppositional tactic of disregarding Holocaust denial did not prove efficient in minimizing the impact of the phenomenon. Therefore, it should be publicly answered, by presentation of authentic historical facts as well as by exposing the system and motives of Holocaust denial. LFo

Kornberg, Jacques: The Paranoid Style: Analysis of a Holocaust-Denial Text. Patterns of Prejudice 29, 2-3 (Apr-July 1995) 33-44.

Analyzes A.R. Butz's "The Hoax of the Twentieth Century" (1976). This text reveals traits of paranoid writing. Butz's theory is based on the idea of a great Jewish conspiracy, beyond proportions, depicting "world Zionist Jewry" as an omnipotent and ubiquitous force. The very lack of documents demonstrating such a plot, and the contention that the vast documentation on which the Nuremberg prosecution was built was forged, is used by Butz to demonstrate the shrewdness and power of the Jewish conspiracy. The main goal of this style of writing is to rehabilitate Nazism. Contending that the Holocaust never happened, Butz depicts the Nazis as victims and the Jews as victimizers. Recommends to avoid entering into debate with Holocaust deniers, thereby rendering the "Jewish conspiracy theory" some legitimation. DR

Kovacs, Andras: The Holocaust, the Persecution of Jews and Historical Responsibility: Findings of a Survey in Hungary. East European Jewish Affairs 28, 1 (Sum 1998) 55-68.

Examines results of a survey conducted in March 1995 in Hungary which consisted of interviews of 1,500 people. The interviews were carried out by the Gallup/Hungary Public Opinion Research Institute. The survey aimed to examine the breadth, strength, content, and variety of antisemitic prejudice in Hungary and to determine what Hungarians felt about the Holocaust and their responsibility for persecution of Jews during World War II. The questions were grouped in three clusters: "Holocaust denial," "acceptance of responsibility," and "legitimization of forgetting." Results show that Holocaust denial arises from the lower strata of the social hierarchy; responsibility for persecution is rejected by certain urban groups stemming from families of high social status; and forgetting is supported by groups of low social status. Contends that in Hungary Holocaust denial is not a form of symbolic expression of antisemitism, as it is in the West; it stems mainly from a uniquely Eastern European development of historical knowledge. Pp. 64-68 contain tables showing correlaof the responses with age, sex, education, social status, antisemitism, etc. DR

Kuehner, Claudia: Ein fragwuerdiges Impressum: Der "Eidgenoss," ein antisemitisches Pamphlet aus der Schweiz. Tribuene 101 (1987) 46-49.

The journal "Eidgenoss" is currently published in Switzerland, by Max Wahl, for a primarily German neo-Nazi readership. It propagates antisemitism and Holocaust denial. Its sources of funding and place of publication are kept secret. RW

Kulka, Erich: Denial of the Holocaust. Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review 2 (1991) 38-62.

An article compiled by the editor, Israel W. Charny, from previous works written by Kulka. Describes the phenomenon of Holocaust denial which arose after World War II, and discusses some of the denial literature produced in the USA, France, Britain, and Germany. Discusses, also, the revisionism of Ernst Nolte and others. States that the number of publications denying or questioning the Holocaust is growing. Suggests that public officials, academic and scholarly institutions, and Holocaust survivors' organizations must unite in a concerted campaign to stop these history-distorters; they should not be ignored. SSC

Kulka, Erich: Fighting Distortions and the Denials of the Holocaust. The Voice of Auschwitz Survivors in Israel: Forty Years after, ed. Shira Nahari. Jerusalem: Public Committee in Israel of Survivors of Auschwitz, 1985. Pp. 13-37.  Published simultaneously in German as "Vierzig Jahre danach."

Traces the history of Holocaust denial, and describes a number of publications by neo-Nazi or extreme right-wing authors.

Kulka, Erich: New Forms of Auschwitz Lies. The Voice of Auschwitz Survivors in Israel 37 (Jan 1987) 2-6.  Published simultaneously in German.

Condemns Ernst Nolte for using revisionist and Holocaust denial arguments. Denies Nolte's argument that Nazi methods were copied from the Soviets. Nolte ignores the participation of professional elites, such as the SS physicians, in the Holocaust and the complicity of large sections of German society. The Holocaust must be viewed as a unique event in human history , an attempt to eradicate the idea of Judaism, as well as the Jews. LF

Kuttner, Paul: The Holocaust , Hoax or History? The Book of Answers to Those Who Would Deny the Holocaust. New York: Dawnwood Press, 1996. xi, 276 pp.

Presents the main arguments put forward by Holocaust deniers. Some of them allege that the Holocaust did not take place at all; others try to diminish its scope or relativize it. Some revisionists, although they do not deny the fact of the mass murder of Jews, challenge the existence of killing centers and gas chambers, or try to absolve perpetrators or collaborator groups of responsibility. Many allegations attack the Jews in one way or another, and border on justification of the Nazi genocide. The book is composed of statements made by deniers, and Kuttner's rebuttals based on historical documents and testimonies. DR

Labedz, Leo: Holocaust: Myths and Horrors. Survey 30, 1-2 (Mar 1988) 240-263.  First published in 1980.

On pp. 240-247, condemns the tendency to minimize or relativize the horrors of the Nazi Holocaust and of Stalinist atrocities. Surveys the spread of Holocaust denial in Australia, Britain, France, and the USA. Notes that in the USSR, the Holocaust was rarely mentioned, but allegations of Jewish collaboration in genocide are sometimes made. The rest of the article is concerned with Western denial of the existence of Soviet concentration camps and reluctance to acknowledge the truth about genocide in Cambodia. LF

The League of Rights: An Evaluation of Australia's Foremost Organisation Promoting Racial and Religious Hatred. Melbourne: Executive Council of Australian Jewry, 1985. 9 pp.

This pamphlet was issued in order to inform the public of the true nature of the Australian League of Rights, an organization which poses as a respectable right-wing body. In fact, the League is an extremely radical racist and antisemitic body, founded in 1946 by supporters of the Social Credit movement of C.H. Douglas, who claimed he would solve the world economic crisis caused by a conspiracy of Jewish financiers. The League also supports Holocaust denial and anti-Zionist activities.

Levi, Primo: O dificil caminho da verdade [The Difficult Way of the Truth]. Heranca Judaica 83 (July 1992) 39-46.  Originally published in Italian in "La Rassegna Mensile di Israel" 48 (1982).

States that the Nazis were confident that nobody would believe the enormity of the Holocaust after the camps were destroyed and the witnesses were killed. Argues that many Germans knew of the Jews' fate, since the camps were part of the German war economy. Denounces present-day historical revisionism. AA

Levi Della Torre, Stefano: Nuove forme della giudeofobia. La Rassegna Mensile di Israel 50, 5-8 [May-Aug 1984] (1985) 249-280.

Analyzes contemporary forms of antisemitism, such as revisionism (Holocaust denial), the increase of publications against Israel and the Jews and, during the War in Lebanon, a revival of theological antisemitism in some Catholic circles. Discusses the political context of this new hostility.

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: Betrifft: Leugnen des Holocaust. Trans.: Gabriele Kosack. Zuerich: Rio, 1994. 319 pp.  Originally published as "Denying the Holocaust" (New York: Free Press, 1993).

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. New York: Free Press, 1993. ix, 278 pp.  On back of title-page: A research project of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

A detailed analysis of the phenomenon of Holocaust denial, which originated in the myth of the Jewish conspiracy and radical anti-Jewish propaganda. Examines the activities and writings of Holocaust deniers in France (P. Rassinier, R. Faurisson), in the USA (H.E. Barnes, D.L. Hoggan, A.J. App, A. Butz, W.A. Carto, F. Leuchter), and in Great Britain (R.E. Harwood, D. Irving). Focuses on the propagandistic use of Holocaust denial by radical right and neo-Nazi groups, the activities of the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), and the penetration of Holocaust denial propaganda in American campuses. Describes the trials of Ernst Zundel in Canada, and the Mermelstein suit against the IHR. Mentions relativization of the Holocaust in the "historians' debate" in Germany. An appendix (pp. 223-235) deals with Holocaust deniers' allegations regarding the use of Zyklon B in Auschwitz, and the authenticity of the diary of Anne Frank. LV

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: The Fragility of Memory: Reflections on the Holocaust. Dorot Chair of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies. Atlanta: Emory University, 1994. Pp. 15-29.

A lecture delivered at the inauguration of the Dorot Chair of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies at Emory University, 23 January 1994. Dwells on Holocaust denial, revisionism, ignorance of the facts of the Holocaust, and the appropriate ways to deal with them. Holocaust denial appeals to a deeply-rooted human wish to seek goodness in the wake of radical evil, but it is also rooted in the irrational phenomenon of antisemitism, which will always surface in some form. However, it is not deniers who pose the greatest threat to history and memory; they have only created a more hospitable space for revisionists who seek to ease Germany's historical burden. Ignorance about the Holocaust should be faced by a resolute and persistent cowith the past. That does not imply that deniers should always be confronted, as proposed by those who criticize Lipstadt's persistent refusal to debate publicly with deniers. Confrontation may enable absurd a-historical or anti-historical notions to be presented as ideas worthy of consideration. We should debate much about the Holocaust, but not about whether it happened. LFo

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: The Fragility of Memory: Reflections on the Holocaust. Gesher 130 (Win 1994) 53-62.] (In Hebrew). Originally published in English in "Dorot Chair of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies" (Atlanta: Emory University, 1994).

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: Holocaust-Denial and the Compelling Force of Reason. Paof Prejudice 26, 1-2 (1992) 64-76.

Holocaust denial, which began decades ago as a marginal phenomenon lying far beyond the borders of academic studies, is now rising and threatens to become a "revisionist school" of history. It has become politicized, and its arguments are widely used by right-wing extremists; it receives the attention of mass media; its influence on the younger generation on campuses is substantial. Moreover, it gives a kind of legitimacy to the attempts to relativize the Holocaust. Contends that it is not worthwhile to debate with revisionists because such debates give their theories the imprimatur of a legitimate historical option, but it is necessary to analyze their arguments and to expose their intentions and political attitudes. DR

Lopez, Guido; Levi, Primo: Se non lui, chi: Con un inedito di Primo Levi. Roma: Centro di Cultura Ebraica della Comunita Israelitica di Roma, 1987. 24 pp.

On pp. 3-11 Lopez discusses Primo Levi's attitude towards Judaism in the light of his works. Pp. 17-23 contain the article by Levi, "Il difficile cammino della verita" ["La Rassegna Mensile di Israel" 48 (1982)], in which he contends that the German people knew about the Holocaust since the "concentration-camp universe" was an active part of the Nazi economy. Now that facts and witnesses have receded into the past, Nazi criminals can say that they did not know. Denounces French historical revisionism which rejects the evidence of Jewish, Russian, or Polish witnesses as that of communists, and claims that material proofs are falsifications and that confessions were obtained under duress or by drugs. AA

Luzzatto Voghera, Gadi: L'antisemitismo: Domande e risposte. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1994. 152 pp.

A survey of antisemitism through the ages, intended for Italian school teachers and pupils in the wake of the antisemitic and racist wave of violence in Europe in 1992. Discusses traditional and modern antisemitism, antisemitic stereotypes (e.g. blood libels, the Jewish conspiracy theory), Nazism, anti-Zionism as antisemitism, and other contemporary anti-Jewish expressions. Also discusses the Holocaust, and especially reactions to the Holocaust, revisionist theories, and Holocaust denial. Pp. 131-146 refer to Holocaust-related films (e.g. "Schindler's List"). AA

MacKenzie, Ian: Pragmatism, Rhetoric, and History. Poetics Today 16, 2 (Sum 1995) 283-299.

Analyzes Richard Rorty's notion of pragmatism (expounded in "Contingency, Irony and Solidarity," 1989) as opposed to Paul de Man's concept of the "inhuman" nature of language and history which, by postulating the nonphenomenality and mechanization of language, in fact absolves the author of any responsibility for his intended meaning (de Man was a Nazi collaborator!). According to Rorty, people use a "final vocabulary" to justify or describe their beliefs or actions while others may doubt the validity of these vocabularies and open them to revision. Subsequently, anything can be made to look good or bad, i.e. redescribed. Revisionists, who pretend that the Nazi gas chambers never existed, exploit inconsistencies in survivors' testimonies, for example, to re-describe, and in fact to deconstruct and unwrite the Holocaust. Contends that although they have their own vocabulary, they can still be held responsible for what they say. AA

Maegerle, Anton: Hitlers Enkel: Namen, Daten, Medien. Tribuene 135 (1995) 148-156.

Deals with the diffusion of neo-Nazi propaganda in Germany by means of the build-up of a network of information services by neo-Nazis. Mentions the use of video-tapes, mailings, the Internet, etc. States that right-wing extremists find ways to avoid various prohibitions of Nazi commemoration, organizing events in Germany and abroad which are used for making contacts and diffusing information. Very popular for German neo-Nazis participating in such events abroad is the occasion to wear symbols forbidden in Germany, like the swastika and ancient Germanic symbols. A large part of the propaganda material is printed in Spain, Austria, Belgium, Canada, and, to a growing extent, in the USA, and sent from these countries to Germany. Mentions names of neo-Nazi publications, periodicals, and Holocaust deniers. ID

Meier, Horst: Das Strafrecht gegen die "Auschwitzluege." Merkur 48, 12 (Dec 1994) 1128-1132.

Discusses the law passed by the German Bundestag in 1994, making it a crime to publicly approve, deny, or trivialize any genocidal act performed under the Nazi regime. A previous law, passed in 1960, only prohibited incitement to hatred or violence, or insult to a population group. Argues that in the latter case, the right to respect of any one group outweighs the right to free speech of the other; but a falsification of history, which is not perceived as insulting, is better countered in open debate rather than in the courts. RW

Melchior, Ib; Brandenburg, Frank: Quest , Searching for Germany's Nazi Past: A Young Man's Story. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1990. xii, 330 pp.

An account, based on tapes and interviews, of a young German, Frank Brandenburg, who sought out former Nazi Party and SS high-ranking officers (e.g. Karl Wolff, Werner Best) in order to understand Germany's Nazi past. He also raised the question of the actuality of the mass extermination of Jews and other peoples under the Nazi regime; all respondents from the Nazi ranks rejected its actuality or tried to diminish its scope. Pp. 164-172 include an interview with a Jewish survivor who relates her experiences in Auschwitz. DR

Mendelsohn, Oskar: Jodenes historie i Norge gjennom 300 ar [History of the Jews in Norway during 300 Years]. Vol. 1-2. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1987. 700; 664 pp.  Vol. 1 was first published in 1969. Vol. 2 appeared in 1986. An abridged and updated version appeared in 1992.

Vol. 1 covers the years 1660-1940. Vol. 2 covers World War II, the Holocaust, and the postwar period (including the subjects of Holocaust denial and anti-Zionism as antisemitism). For antisemitism, see the index. SSC

Mensdorf, Alexander: Im Namen der Republik: Rechtsextremismus und Justiz in Oesterreich. Wien: Loecker, 1990. 312 pp.

Describes the persistence of neo-Nazi organizations in Austria, whose propaganda includes Holocaust denial and allegations of the harmful influence of Jews on the German-Austrian people. Reports on 11 lawsuits in which these organizations or their leaders sued various journalists for slander. One involved Friedrich Peter, leader of the Freiheitliche Partei Oesterreichs, who in 1975 sued against a report that he had taken part in mass shootings as an SS officer in Russia; the defense brought voluminous evidence that his unit carried out the shootings, but Peter won his suit. In another case, the Ring Freiheitlicher Studenten, a neo-Nazi student organization, in 1987 obtained the right of rebuttal against a student paper that had reported on molestation of opponents at an antisemitic lecture sponsored by the organization at the University of Vienna. RW

Miele, Frank: Giving the Devil His Due: Holocaust Revisionism as a Test Case for Free Speech and the Skeptical Ethic. Skeptic 2, 4 (1994) 58-70.

Presents the views of Ernst Zuendel and David Irving (based on interviews with them), and of others such as Robert Faurisson and Fred Leuchter. Differentiates between "valid Holocaust revisionism" which "provides inforon which others may reach different conclusions" and denial of the Holocaust. Discusses legal proceedings taken against these revisionists in various countries (especially Canada), and argues against legislation restricting free speech as a means of opposing Holocaust denial. SSC

Molinari, Maurizio, ed.: Razzismo, xenofobia, antisemitismo in Europa. Nuova Antologia 2186 (Apr-June 1993) 5-24.

A collection of seven interviews and articles on the danger of the revival of xenophobia, ethnic hate, and antisemitism in contemporary Europe. Norberto Bobbio states that expressions of racism are inevitable in contact with an immigrant minority, but they need not be discriminatory or violent. He observes that antisemitism is ever-present even where there are no Jews, in "scapegoat" and "Jewish conspiracy" versi. Marek Halter denounces historical revisionism, flourishing now as memory of the Holocaust fades, as an attempt to deny the rights and dignity acquired by Jews after the Holocaust. He rejects Ernst Nolte's relativization of mass murder and calls for reinforced remembering of the tragedy. AA

Morawek, Elisabeth; Steininger, Sigrid, eds.: Amoklauf gegen die Wirklichkeit: NS-Verbrechen und "revisionistische" Geschichtsschreibung. 2nd, rev. ed. Wien: Dokumentationsarchiv des oesterreichischen Widerstandes, Bundesministerium fuer Unterricht und Kunst, 1992. 135 pp.  First published in 1991.  An expanded version appeared as "Wahrheit und `Auschwitzluege'," eds. Brigitte Bailer-Galanda et al. (1995).

Partial contents: Wiesenthal, Simon: Vorwort zur zweiten Auflage (5-10); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Der "Revisionismus" , pseudowissenschaftliche Propaganda (11-14); Spann, Gustav: Methoden rechtsextremer Tendenzgeschichtsschreibung und Propaganda (15-28). "Zur Leugnung der Massenmorde im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz": Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die Verbrechen von Auschwitz (29-40); Id.: Der Leuchter-Bericht (41-46); Bailer, Josef: Der Leuchter-Bericht aus der Sicht eines Chemikers: Keine Massenvergasungen in Auschwitz? [Reprinted from "Die Schatten der Vergangenheit" (1990).] (47-52); Wegner, Werner: Zur Kritik des Leuchter-Gutachtens (53-70). "Zur Leugnung der Morde im Konzentrationslager Mauthausen": Freund, Florian: Die Gaskammer von Mauthausen (71-74); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Das sogenannte Lachout-"Dokument" (75-82); Neugebauer, Wolfgang: "Revisionistische" Manipulation der Zahl der Holocaustopfer (83-87); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die Leugnung der Echtheit des Tagebuches der Anne Frank (89-91); Neugebauer, Wolfgang: Die Frage "Gab es einen schriftlichen Hitlerbefehl zur Judenvernichtung?" Ein "revisionistisches" Argument der Holocaust-Leugnung (93-96); Lasek, Wilhelm: "Revisionistische" Propaganda in Oesterreich (97-106); "Revisionistische" Agitation am Beispeil einer Wiener Schule (113-118); Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte: Die oesterreichische Rechtslage und der "Revisionismus" (119-126); Lasek, Wilhelm: "Revisionistische" Autoren und deren Publikationen (127-131). RW

Najarian, James: Gnawing at History: The Rhetoric of Holocaust Denial. The Midwest Quarterly 39, 1 (Fall 1997) 74-89.

Examines rhetorical strategies in the writings of Holocaust deniers; they employ some of the same techniques used by contemporary intellectuals. The Holocaust deniers are antisemites who have learned the value of rhetorical modernism. They appeal to the reader's objectivity, sense of fair play, and distrust of figurative language. They also employ the strategies of academic prose, including footnotes, references to "authorities," use of the passive voice, avoidance of emotion-laden terms (using "National Socialist Germany" instead of "Nazi Germany"), evocation of "fairness" to present the Nazi side of the story, and rejection of the testimonies of first-hand witnesses as "biased." REK

Nefsky, Marilyn Felcher: Current Status of Three Canadian Hate Mongers: Keegstra, Zuendel and Ross. From Prejudice to Destruction: Western Civilization in the Shadow of Auschwitz, eds. Jan Colijn, Marcia Sachs Littell. Muenster, 1995. Pp. 199-222.  Unseen. An abridged German version appeared in "Kirche und Israel" 11 (1996).

Nefsky, Marilyn Felcher: Kanadas Hasskraemer: Drei Fallstudien. Kirche und Israel 11, 2 (1996) 112-130.  A revised version of the author's article which appeared in English in "From Prejudice to Destruction" (Muenster, 1995).

Describes the activities of three residents of Canada: James Keegstra, Malcolm Ross, and Ernst Zundel, who propagate, in the classroom, in the mass media, and in publications, neo-Nazi views including the allegation of a Jewish world conspiracy and denial of the Holocaust. Zundel also runs a publishing house, Samisdat, which spreads antisemitic hate literature worldwide. All three were tried, were repeatedly convicted, and repeatedly appealed. The Supreme Court declared the law by which Zundel was convicted unconstitutional and acquitted him. Argues that freedom of expression must be limited when it violates the rights of others. Discusses the laws on which a prosecution can be based in such cases. RW

Paetzold, Kurt: Wider die "neue Auschwitzluege." 1999: Zeitschrift fuer Sozialgeschichte 2, 2 (Apr 1987) 158-169.

Criticizes the views of historians such as Ernst Nolte and Joachim Fest. Their theories concerning the mass murder of European Jews can be seen as Holocaust denial. It appears that "Auschwitz" was not an unusual occurrence in history; the singularity only consists of the methods employed. Denies the view that the murder of the Jews was planned in reaction to the defeats in the USSR, when Hitler understood that Germany had lost the war. Claims that, on the contrary, the mass execution of the Jews began in the euphoria of victory, in the certitude of a new Aryan Europe. Irrational Jew-hatred and hostility towards other societies enabled such atrocities. MR

Passauer, Paul: Schach den Geschichtsklitterern! Anmerkungen zur Strafbarkeit der "Auschwitz-Luege." Tribuene 95 (1985) 6-8.

Approves the initiative taken by some West German federal states to pass a law which will enable the courts to punish Holocaust denial.

Persitz, Helene; Wellers, Georges: L'affaire Mermelstein et les revisionnistes de l'histoire. Le Monde Juif 122 (Apr-June 1986) 80-92.

Reviews revisionist attempts to deny the Holocaust, mentioning central revisionist works and authors in the U.S. and in Europe , e.g. Arthur R. Butz, Robert Faurisson, Dietlieb Felderer and his antisemitic "Jewish Information Bulletin." Their allegations appear in the Institute for Historical Review's 1983 "Special Report." In 1979, a $50,000 reward was offered by the IHR to anyone who could prove the existence of the gas chambers. The challenge was taken up by an Auschwitz survivor, Melvin Mermelstein. Receiving no answer to his deposition, Mermelstein sued the IHR for breach of contract and the JIB for defamation. The Los Angeles County Court decided in 1981 that "the existence of the Holocaust is not subject to contest," and awarded him damages and apologies. AA

Petropoulos, Jonathan: Confronting the "Holocaust as Hoax" Phenomenon as Teachers. History Teacher 28, 4 (1995) 523-539.  In Germany. Unseen.

Picciotto Fargion, Liliana: Memoria della Shoa: Condizionamenti, revisioni, negazioni. La Rassegna Mensile di Israel 61, 3 [Sept-Dec 1994] (Dec 1995) 9-29.

Describes the postwar process of uncovering the truth about the fate of the Jews and of consolidation of the memory of the Holocaust. For many years, only the Germans were held responsible, while the collaboration of others, including the Italians, was downplayed. Discusses Holocaust denial, and the revisionist historiography which refutes authentic documents and testimonies, manipulates statistics of the numbers of victims, and prints accusations of a Jewish conspiracy. Refers specifically to authors such as Giorgio Pisano ("Mussolini e gli ebrei," 1967), Paul Rassinier, Henry Elmer Barnes, and Robert Faurisson. AA

Porat, Dina; Stauber, Roni, eds.: Anti-Semitism Worldwide , 1997/8. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Anti-Semitism and Racism, 1998. x, 331 pp.  Publiin cooperation with the Anti-Defamation League and the World Jewish Congress.

An annual report giving details of antisemitic activities and trends in various countries and regions worldwide. Contains sections on Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, the Middle East, North America, Latin America, and Australia, Japan and South Africa. For each country or region gives information on the Jewish community, extremist movements and hate groups, attitudes towards the Holocaust and the Nazi era, Holocaust denial, and actions against racism and antisemitism. This issue includes a section entitled "Research Topics," with the following articles: Nadler, Arie: Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination: The Case of Anti-Semitism (9-15); Sznajder, Mario: Continuity or Change in the Ideology of the Alleanza Nazionale [whether the Italian party has abandoned fascism and become a liberal democratic party.] (17-31); Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Nationalist Challenges in the New Europe (33-39). SSC

Price, Vincent; Tewksbury, David; Huang, Li-Ning: Third-Person Effects on Publication of a Holocaust-Denial Advertisement. Journal of Communication 48, 2 (Spr 1998) 3-26.

The third-person effect hypothesis predicts that people overestimate the impact of media messages on others. Strong partisans , those who have a stake in the matter , are especially prone to perceive large media effects. Third-person effects may be magnified when the source of the message is biased against its subject. People seize upon the fact that the source is biased and discount the message, but view others as less capable of seeing through the biased intent and especially prone to persuasion. Reports the results of a study carried out in 1995-96. Students at the University of Michigan were presented with a full-page Holocaust denial ad which was placed by the Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust and printed in the "University of Michigan Daily" in 1991. The students were asked about the ad's probable impact and its suitability for publication. Subjects' appraisals of influence on themselves were reasonably accurate, whereas they tended to overestimate the impact on others. Jewish students exhibited larger third-person effects than others. Students who found the ad more persuasive were more likely to support publication. SSC

Rabinbach, Anson: Memories of Assassins, Assassins of Memory: Recent French Struggles with the Past. Dissent 41, 2 (Spr 1994) 253-260.

States that for many years the French hid their trauma of the occupation, as well as tensions amounting to a "civil war" between memory of the resistance and memory of the Vichy-Berlin collaboration, behind the myth of national resistance to the Nazis. Discusses the collapse of the Gaullist myth of national resistance, quoting Henry Rousso's "The Vichy Syndrome" (1991), and recalling the pardons given Rene Bousquet (1949) and Paul Touvier (1972), high Vichy officials. Also discusses the issue of Holocaust denial in France (by Robert Faurisson and others), as well as the intent at Klaus Barbie's trial to relativize the Nazi crimes. Analyzes the efforts of Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Alain Finkielkraut, and Deborah Lipstadt to combat historical revisionism and make sure that crimes against humanity will always be punishable. AA

Redeker, Robert: La toile d'araignee du revisionnisme. Les Temps Modernes 589 (Aug-Sept 1996) 1-6.

Reflects on the present situation in the French media, where revisionism and negation of the Holocaust have become legitimate and are discussed seriously in the press and on television. Underlines the danger of such a situation for the memory of the Holocaust. HV

The Reference Librarian 61-62 (1998).  Also published in hard-cover under the title "The Holocaust: Memories, Research, Reference," eds. Robert Hauptman, Susan Hubbs Motin (Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1998).

Includes two articles on Holocaust denial: Stauffer, Suzanne M.: Selected Issues in Holocaust Denial Literature and Reference Work [On the problem of providing access in libraries to Holocaust denial materials.] (189-193); Landesman, Betty: Holocaust Denial and the Internet (287-299). SSC

Relations Internationales 65 (Spr 1991).

This issue is entitled: "Negationnisme et revisionnisme." Contents: Kaspi, Andre: Introduction: Le genocide des Juifs: Le negationnisme est-il une entreprise transnationale? (3-7); Milza, Pierre: Le negationnisme en France (9-22); Desbuissons, Ghislaine: Maurice Bardeche, un precurseur du "revisionnisme" (23-37); Frank, Robert: Le negationnistes britanniques (39-47); Nicault, Catherine: Antisionisme et negationnisme (49-60); Soutou, Georges-Henri: La "querelle des historiens" allemands: Polemique, histoire et identite nationale (61-81); Werner, Karl Ferdinand: Reflexions d'un historien allemand (83-93). HV

Rembiszewski, Sarah: The Final Lie: Holocaust Denial in Germany: A Second-Generation Denier as a Test Case. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism, 1996. v, 96 pp.

Traces the history of Holocaust denial in West Germany and in reunified Germany in the 1990s. Revisionist publications always had some circulation in West Germany, but Holocaust denial gained wider popularity in the 1970s, when German-Jewish relations began to normalize. At the same time, Holocaust denial acquired a new motivation , to "cleanse Germany's good name," to discharge Germany of her guilt. Pp. 29-67 deal with the case of Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf (b. 1964, changed his name to Scheerer in 1994), who in 1992 published the so-called "Rudolf Report" ("Rudolf Gutachten") which purports to prove that mass killings by use of poison gas could not have taken place at Auschwitz. Discusses Rudolf's contacts with other Holocaust deniers, the propagation of his writings throughout the world, and legal actions taken against him. In June 1995 he was sentenced to 14 months in prison for incitement to racism, Holocaust denial and insulting the dead. Pp. 73-94 contain five appendixes, listing prominent German Holocaust denial activists of the 1990s, books by Holocaust deniers, Germar Rudolf's publications, legal advisers to Holocaust deniers and the radical right in Germany, and Holocaust deniers tried in German courts in the 1990s. DR

Remembering for the Future: Working Papers and Addenda. Vol. I-III. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. xxv, 3202 pp.

The following papers deal with Holocaust denial: Braham, Randolph L.: Historical Revisionism and the New Right (2093-2103); Gutman, Yisrael: The Denial of the Holocaust and Its Consequences (2116-2124); Bonifas, Aime: The French Revisionists and the Myth of Holocaust (2187-2198); Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: The Evolution of American Holocaust Revisionism (2579-2593).

Robert Faurisson c/ Jean Pierre-Bloch. Le Monde Juif 117 (Jan-Mar 1985) 25-29.

Gives the decision of the court of Paris in January 1985 in the case of Robert Faurisson's appeal of the sentence pronounced in May 1984 in his lawsuit against Jean Pierre-Bloch, president of LICRA. In the first trial, the court acquitted Pierre-Bloch of Faurisson's accusation of "public defamation" by naming the latter a "falsifier." Taking into account that Faurisson's writings are offensive to survivors of racial persecutions and outrageous for the victims' memory, the court rejected Faurisson's appeal. LV

Rodriguez Jimenez, Jose Luis: Nuevos fascismos? Extrema derecha y neofascismo en Europa y Estados Unidos. Barcelona: Peninsula, 1998. 365 pp.

Presents a general survey of the activities of extreme-right and neo-Nazi organizations today. Pp. 125-136, "La negacion del genocidio nazi," discuss different Holocaust denial currents in Europe and the USA, beginning with Robert Faurisson in France and the Institute for Historical Review in the USA. Pp. 271-281, "Antisemitismo en Europa del Este: El regreso de los `Protocolos'," deal with extreme-right and nationalist movements which use antisemitism as a political tool, as well as with accusations of a Jewish world conspiracy based on the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." AA

Roth, Stephen J.: Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law. Israel Yearbook on HumanRights 23 [1993] (1994) 215-235.

Discusses the difficulties of dealing with Holocaust denial on a legal basis. Surveys countries in which the phenomenon is prohibited by special laws enacted during the 1980s (e.g. West Germany, France, Switzerland, Israel). Concludes that where denial is not accompanied by antisemitic remarks one cannot rely on those statements alone to be judged as incitement. States that it would be preferable to include Holocaust denial in a larger category of denial of crimes against humanity, which would be outlawed in special legislation. LV

Roth, Stephen J.: Denial of the Holocaust: An Issue of Law. Institute of Jewish Affairs: Research Reports 2 (Feb 1994) 11 pp.  Based on a more detailed article which appeared in the "Israel Yearbook on Human Rights" 23 (1994).

Rousso, Henry: La negation du genocide juif. L'Histoire 106 (Dec1987) 76-79.

The first French Holocaust revisionist was Paul Rassinier who began to write in 1948. His views were later adopted by Robert Faurisson, who claimed that the Holocaust and the gas chambers were an invention of the Allies and of Zionist propaganda. The meeting point of the extreme-left and the extreme-right on the subject of antisemitism explains the especially strong revisionist movement in France in the 1980s. Discusses the ideological origins of antisemitism on both sides.

Concludes that there is nothing original in current revisionist propaganda , nearly everything can be found in Rassinier's writings. The popularity of and interest in the revisionist movement may be related to the lifting of taboos on the Vichy period. HV

Rubinstein, Hilary L.: Early Manifestations of Holocaust Denial in Australia. Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal 14, 1 (Nov 1997) 93-109.

Contrary to the widespread opinion that Holocaust denial began in Australia in 1979 (with John Bennett's memorandum published in the "National Times"), manifestatios of this phenomenon can be traced back to the 1950s-60s. Two outstanding Australian postwar antisemites, Eric Butler and Father Patrick Gearon, were Holocaust deniers as well. Holocaust denial became a component in the League of Rights' antisemitism by the 1950s, and its member De Wykeham de Louth produced revisionist flyers and pamphlets from 1953 on. Now the League is the main disseminator of Holocaust denial. Some student groups, the immigrant rightist organization Hungarista, as well as Nazi and pro-Nazi groups in Australia (with writers such as H.F. Brus, Edward Cawthron, and William A. Carter) were conspicuous in this field long before 1979. DR

Sarfati, Georges Elia: Antisemitisme et falsification de l'histoire: Analyse d'un tract "revisionniste." Cahiers Bernard Lazare 119-120 (1987) 131-146.

A textual analysis of a revisionist handbill distributed during the Barbie trial and banned by the French courts. It was supposedly put out by a collective of high school students (Collectif Lyceens Lyon-Nancy-Strasbourg). Its sub-titles read: No Extermination; The Final Solution Meant Expulsion from Europe; Six Million Were Not Assassinated but Hundreds of Thousands Died; Zyklon Gas Was a Pesticide. The handbill was meant to give the impression that it was the expression of French youth who feel they are indoctrinated by the media. While rejecting Nazism, violence, and anti-Jewish prejudice, they claim that the Germans were not criminals and denounce "Jewish propaganda" and the "Jewish-Zionist conspiracy" using traditional antisemitic themes. Analyzes the revisionist thesis and its ideological sources , Nazi and right-wing traditional antisemitism, and left-wing antisemitism disguised as anti-Zionism. AA

Le Scandale Le Pen. Le Droit de Vivre 525 (Sept-Oct 1987) 1-3.

In September 1987, Le Pen was asked in a radio interview about the theses of Faurisson and Roques, denying the Holocaust. He claimed that the gas chambers, whether they existed or not, were "a detail" of the events of the Second World War. After a public outcry (blamed by the Front National on the Jews), LICRA, concentration camp survivors, and other organizations brought a civil suit against Le Pen. The judge found him guilty of Holocaust denial and ordered him to pay damages. The reactions to this affair underline the spread of a new form of revisionism which does not deny that the Holocaust occurred, but "merely" diminishes its importance and banalizes it. HV

Scher, D.M.: Defaming the Holocaust. Kleio 21 (1989) 13-27.

Surveys the history of Holocaust denial, especially in Britain and the USA. Describes, also, the successful efforts of the South African Board of Deputies to procure an official ban on the pamphlet "Did Six Million Really Die?" by Richard Harwood (pseudonym of Richard Verrall of the British National Front). Notes that South African rightist antisemites, as well as some leftist pro-Palestinian groups, continue to disseminate propaganda branding the Holocaust a Jewish lie. RW

Schoeps, Julius Hans; Schloer, Joachim, eds.: Antisemitismus: Vorurteile und Mythen. Muenchen: Piper, 1995. 310 pp.

Includes an article on Holocaust denial: Lichtenstein, Heiner: Die "Auschwitz-Luege" (294-301).

Schwarz, Johann: Die juristische Diskussion um die Strafbarkeit der Leugnung von Auschwitz in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kirche und Israel 11, 2 (1996) 99-105.

Traces the debate among German jurists on the legitimacy of the law , passed in 1994 in reaction to the Supreme Court's acquittal of Guenter Deckert, a right-wing radical accused of denying the Holocaust , making Holocaust denial a punishable crime. Many jurists hold that Holocaust denial in itself, if it is not linked to an attack on the Jewish population, falls under the protection of the constitutional right to freedom of expression. Public opinion, on the other hand, was outraged by the Supreme Court's decision, and this outrage caused the Bundestag to pass the new law. RW

Seidel, Gill: The Holocaust Denial: Antisemitism, Racism and the New Right. Leeds: Beyond the Pale Collective, 1986. xxx, 202 pp.

Describes the events of the Holocaust, and present-day Holocaust denial, as part of the continuing history of antisemitism. Analyzes manifestations of Holocaust denial and neo-Nazism in Great Britain, France, West Germany, and the USA, giving details of specific persons and organizations and their international links (e.g. Arthur Butz, William Grimstad, Lenni Brenner, Robert Faurisson, David Irving, GRECE, the Institute for Historical Review). Also discusses anti-Zionism as a form of antisemitism. LF

Seidel, Gill: De ontkenning van de Holocaust: Antisemitisme, racisme en Nieuw Rechts. Baarn, Netherlands: Ambo; Den Haag: Novib, 1988. 248 pp.  Originally published as "The Holocaust Denial: Antisemitism, Racism and the New Right" (Leeds: Beyond the Pale Collective, 1986).

Shapiro, Shelly, ed.: Truth Prevails: Demolishing Holocaust Denial , the End of "The Leuchter Report." New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation; Latham, NY: Holocaust Survivors & Friends in Pursuit of Justice, 1990. xi, 135 pp.

A collection of articles opposing the attempt to present a scientific basis for the denial of the existence of the gas chambers by the self-proclaimed "expert" on execution technology Fred A. Leuchter, Jr., who has become a spokesman for the neo-Nazi campaign to deny the Holocaust. "The Leuchter Report" was commissioned and financed by Ernst Zundel for use in his trial in 1988. Contents: Preface (1-9); Shapiro, Shelly: An Investigation (10-28); Pressac, Jean-Claude: The Deficiencies and Inconsistencies of "The Leuchter Report" (31-60); Pressac, Jean-Claude: Additional Notes: Leuchter's Videotape: A Witness to Fraud (61-73); Goodman, Arthur: Leuchter: Exposed and Discredited by the Court (75-84); Rubenstein, Philip: "The Leuchter Report" in the United Kingdom (85-93); Silets, H.L.: Facts Written in Blood: The Zyklon B Trial of Bruno Tesch [By a British military court, Hamburg, 1946.] (95-104); Allen, Charles R., Jr.: The Role of the Media in the Leuchter Matter, Hyping a Holocaust Denier: "The Atlantic" and ABC's "Prime Time Live" vs. Responsible Journalism (105-126). DR

Sher, Neal M.: Anti-Semitism and Holocaust Denial in Internet Era. Justice 15 (Dec 1997) 31-32, 37.

Based on a lecture delivered to the World Council of the International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists, London, July 1997. Contends that there is a potential danger to the Jewish people from Holocaust-denial material on the Internet. The use of this material is not limited to obscure individuals. Notes that Patrick J. Buchanan, the well-known commentator and erstwhile candidate for president of the USA, who reaches a large audience in his broadcasts on CNN, utilizes it as a source of information. REK

Shermer, Michael: Proving the Holocaust: The Refutation of Revisionism & the Restoration of History. Skeptic 2, 4 (1994) 32-57.

Sets out to demonstrate how the Holocaust is pro-ven, using historical and scientific methodology in order to show that pseudohistory cannot succeed when scientific methodology is applied to studthe past. The essay is divided into four parts: defining the Holocaust and what revisionists are specifically claiming; examining the revisionists' motives, and fallacies; refuting the revisionists' claims through a convergence of evidence from many different sources; and illustrating how history can be distinguished from pseudohistory. States that the present Holocaust revisionist movement primarily centers around the Institute for Historical Review and its journal, and a handful of eccentric personalities, including Tom Marcellus (IHR director), Mark Weber (the journal editor), David Irving, Ernst Zundel, and Jewish revisionist David Cole. Discusses the views and activities of all the above. Presents statements by leading German Nazis and revisionist interpretations of these statements, and points out the fallacies in the revisionist arguments. SSC

Shields, James G.: French Revisionism on Trial: The Case of Robert Faurisson. Patterns of Prejudice 25, 1 (Sum 1991) 86-88.

In March 1991 the revisionist historian and denier of the Holocaust Faurisson was tried in a French court and found guilty of casting doubt on the crimes against humanity perpetrated by the Nazis, based on the Gayssot Law of 13 July 1990. This was a significant test case based on the new law which makes denial of the Holocaust a criminal offense. Faurisson was sentenced to a suspended fine of 100,000 francs to be paid should a further conviction against him occur within five years. Faurisson and Patrice Boizeau, editor of the extreme-right monthly "Le Choc du mois" which published the interview with him in September 1990, were sued for libel by eleven associations of ex-deportees. Boizeau was fined 30,000 francs and ordered to pay damages of 20,000 francs to each of the eleven associations. SSC

Silverberg, Mark: The Six Percent Solution: An Analysis of Hate Legislation in Canada. Journal of Jewish Communal Service 61, 1 (Fall 1984) 54-63.

A recent poll reveals that approximately 6% of the Canadian population are hard-core antisemites. These include adherents of the Identity Movement Churches, Aryan Nations, Ku Klux Klan, and others, who disseminate hate literature throughout the world, particularly Holocaust denial. Discusses the shortcomings of Canada's federal and provincial legal codes in dealing with the problems of racism and the manifestations of antisemitism. Suggests procedures for reviewing existing laws.

Simonelli, Frederick James: American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party.  Diss. , University of Nevada, Reno, 1995. 303 pp. Unseen.

Rockwell (1918-1967) was the most notorious antisemitic and racist politician in the U.S. from his emergence as a national figure in 1958 to his death in 1967. He resurrected the trappings of German National Socialism as political symbols and created the American Nazi party as the political vehicle for his ambitions. He created and popularized the modern concept of White Power, he introduced Holocaust denial propaganda to the American racist right in the 1960s and popularized its tenets, and he encouraged the infiltration of Christian Identity churches by his followers, thereby creating a respectable front for neo-Nazi organizational activities while utilizing Christian Identity theology as a "religious" justification for antisemitism. Rockwell's innovations in these three areas , White Power, Holocaust denial, and Christian Identity , enabled future generations of American Nazis and antisemites to seek a wider audience for their political views.

Sitman, David: Antisemitism on the Internet. Massuah 25 (1997) 112-122.]  Appeared in English in "Justice" 12 (1997). (In Hebrew)

Sitman, David: Propagating Anti-Semitism on the Internet. Justice 12 (Mar 1997) 3-11.

Describes antisemitic and Holocaust denial material on the Internet and particularly on the World Wide Web (WWW). Gives a short survey of various sites: the Zuendel site, Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH), Institute for Historical Review, Adelaide Institute, Arthur Butz, National Alliance, Stormfront, National Socialist White People's Party, Occupied America, First Amendment Exercise Machine, White Aryan Resistance, Scriptures for America, Christian Ideology Online, Be Wise as Serpents, Radio Islam, and Usenet antisemitic discussion groups. Includes a history of the controversy surrounding the Holocaust denier Arthur Butz and a list of antisemitic WWW sites with their https. Most antisemitic WWW sites are now based in the USA, although others throughout the world are emerging. REK

Smith, Tom W.: The Holocaust Denial Controversy. Public Opinion Quarterly 59, 2 (Sum 1995) 269-295.

Surveys recent polls conducted in the USA during 1992-94, on the initiative of the American Jewish Committee, concerning knowledge of Americans about the Holocaust, including a question regarding Holocaust denial. In the first poll, carried out by the Roper Organization (1992), the results showed that over a fifth of Americans had doubts about the occurrence of the Holocaust. The polls carried out later proved that the results of the first poll were due to the ambiguous double-negative formulation of the question. The last polls in 1994 on knowledge of and denial of the Holocaust proved that while ignorance about the Holocaust is widespread, its denial does not concern more than 2% of the population and that it results from general ignorance of history rather than from neo-Nazi ideology. HV

Smith, Tom W.: Holocaust Denial: What the Survey Data Reveal. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1995. 64 pp. (Working Papers on Contemporary Anti-Semitism).

The results of a survey on knowledge of the Holocaust and its denial, conducted by the Roper Organization for the American Jewish Committee in 1992, were challenged in 1993-94 by sociologists who contended that the wording of the questions was not appropriate and misled the respondents. A number of follow-up surveys were conducted in 1993-94 in the USA. Sums up the results of these surveys, showing that ignorance of the Holocaust is widespread. It is higher in the USA than in Europe, but no higher than for other important events dealing with World War II and civil rights. Holocaust ignorance decreased slightly from 1992 to 1994. In regard to Holocaust denial, results vary depending on the wording of the questions. Only a small minority of the respondents are committed Holocaust deniers, but the percentage of doubters is higher than in Europe. Uncertainty and doubt about the Holocaust is mostly a function of ignorance, not absorption of neo-Nazi propaganda. Most of those who acknowledge the Holocaust accept its relevancy for the present. Pp. 30-64 contain statistical tables and data from 12 surveys conducted between 1986-94. DR

Sneed, Christine: Campus Editors Confront the Holocaust Controversy. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 8, 3 (1993) 168-181.

In 1991-92 the Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust approached more than a dozen campus newspapers in the USA to publish its essay "The Holocaust Controversy: The Case for Open Debate." Campus journalists faced a tough ethical dilemma. Some of them published the essay from a libertarian stance; others rejected the essay altogethe. There were also those who, confronting the moral problem, chose a of middle way , e.g. they published the essay and proposed that readers write in reactions, or published a concise exposition of the essay's arguments. Their various considerations are presented. DR

Spier, Howard, ed.: Antisemitism in Central and Eastern Europe: A Current Survey. Institute of Jewish Affairs: Research Report 4-6 (1991) 51 pp.  Originally published as a Special Report in November 1991, and here updated.

Reviews current antisemitic manifestations in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia, focusing, in each country, on antisemitic publications and propaganda, graffiti, desecration of Jewish cemeteries, the use of antisemitic slogans and denial of the Holocaust by new right-wing political parties and organizations. Mentions statements against antisemitism issued by political leaders and representatives of the Church. Notes the reprinand spread of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. States that antisemitic activities are more virulent in Poland, Romania, and Hungary. LV

Stanley, Jerry: History on Trial. Midstream 34, 3 (Apr 1988) 22-23.

Describes the case successfully brought in 1981 by Melvin Mermelstein against the Institute for Historical Review, in which the Los Angeles County Court declared the Holocaust a historical fact not subject to debate. LF

Stauber, Roni: David Irving , from Revisionism to Holocaust Denial. Bishvil ha-Zikaron 26 (Feb 1998) 22-25. (In Hebrew)

Regards David Irving's transformation from a revisionist historian of World War II into an ardent Holocaust denier as a manifest outcome of his early historical writings and of his political beliefs. In his early writings he did not relate the mass extermination of the Jews to Hitler, who he alleged was not aware of the "Final Solution." He blamed World War II on Churchill. His later publications claim that the "Holocaust myth" developed in order to justify the wrongful attack on Germany, which was influenced by Jewish magnates who wanted to avenge their persecuted people. As reflected by his writings, Irving is an antisemite, believes in Jewish conspiracies, and his thoughts are related to those of neo-Nazis and Holocaust deniers. LFo

Steinbach, Peter: "Revisionisten" melden sich zu Wort: Widerstaende bei der Aufarbeitung der Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus. Tribuene 96 (1985) 119-126.

Warns against "revisionist" historiography and Holocaust denial spread by extreme right-wing circles in West Germany today. Political criticism of this trend is not sufficient; it must be fought by the publication of serious historical research based on sources.

Steinberg, Maxime: De ogen van het monster: De holocaust dag in dag uit [The Eyes of the Monster: The Holocaust Day In and Day Out]. Trans.: Johan de Roey. Antwerpen: Hadewijch, 1992. 181 pp.  Originally published as "Les yeux du temoin et le regard du borgne: L'histoire face au revisionnisme" (Paris: Cerf, 1990).

Steinberg, Maxime: Les yeux du temoin et le regard du borgne: L'histoire face au revisionnisme. Paris: Cerf, 1990. 213 pp.

Analyzes the text of the diary written by SS officer Johann Paul Kremer, a Nazi physician who served in Auschwitz between August-November 1942, and its use by Robert Faurisson for revisionist purposes. The diary entries for this period describe the horrors of the extermination of the Jews in Auschwitz. Its use by Faurisson for revisionist goals was possible due to the laconic style of writing which facilitated distorted interpretations. A translation of Kremer's diary entries (pp. 193-203) and other documents related to the extermination of Western European Jews are appended. HV

Steininger, Rolf; Boehler, Ingrid, eds.: Der Umgang mit dem Holocaust: Europa , USA , Israel. Wien: Boehlau, 1994. 498 pp.

Includes an article on Holocaust denial: Benz, Wolfgang: Die "Auschwitz-Luege" (103-115).

Stengers, Jean: Quelques libres propos sur "Faurisson, Roques et Cie." Cahiers , Bijdragen 12 (May 1989) 5-29.

A revised version of a paper delivered at a seminar of the Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes Historiques de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Brussels, March 1988. Discusses the specific characteristics of French historical revisionism (as represented by Paul Rassinier, Robert Faurisson, Henri Roques, etc.) and its success among the extreme Right and extreme Left. Mentions Faurisson's talent and his provocative style, and focuses on his method of distorting the interpretation of documents concerning the Holocaust while ignoring their context and historical background. Concludes that Faurisson is neither dishonest nor a forger, as claimed by his adversaries, but belongs to a category of "mad scholars" characterized by lack of common sense, obsessions and delusions. However, their opponents' ban of revisionist authors and the absence of scientific responses have had an opposite effect from that intended. LV

Stern, Kenneth S.: Holocaust Denial. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1993. xii, 193 pp.

Surveys Holocaust denial activities and publications around the world, with a separate chapter on the United States (pp. 10-24), referring to the penetration of Holocaust denial propaganda in American universities and in the media. Focuses on concrete ways of refuting specific claims aroused by the deniers. The four appendices (pp. 100-152) include propagandistic material published by Bradley R. Smith (from the Institute for Historical Review), a transcript of a TV talk show on Holocaust denial (30 April 1992), a list of Holocaust-denying books and pamphlets (only author and title given), and articles from the "Journal of Historical Review." LV

Tadmor-Shimony, Tali: Antisemitism on the Information Superhighway: A Case Study of a UseNet Discussion Group. Jerusalem: Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University, 1995. 19 pp. (Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism, 5).

The UseNet system, a worldwide distribution network of electronic bulletin boards and discussion groups, has provided some advantages for disseminators of antisemitic propaganda. Examines the activities of three such discussion groups in March-June 1992, which dealt mainly with the issue of Holocaust denial. The most "prolific" of the antisemites in these groups was Ralph Winston. Traces the composition of the participants in the discussion, the main motifs, the antisemitic arguments, and the reactions to them. Concludes that, for the present, the antisemitic propaganda has not been successful, mainly because of the sophistication of the UseNet audience. However, with a growing base of subscribers, it is likely that such propaganda will become more pervasive. DR

Taguieff, Pierre-Andre: La nouvelle judeophobie: Antisionisme, antiracisme, anti-imperialisme. Les Temps Modernes 520 (Nov 1989) 1-80.

Analyzes the ideological and political contexts of the new worldwide Judeophobia which arose between 1967-75, whose main slogan is that Zionism equals racism. This new antisemitism has two important components: anti-Zionism, the existence of which is related to the struggle of the Palestinians, and historical revisionism which exists in right-wing and left-wing political groups, and not only extremist ones. Describes historical revisionism in contemporary France, quoting some of its main ideologues, like Pierre Gripari and Maurice Bardeche. The aim of revisionism, apart from absolving ex-Nazis, is to delegitimize Zionism and the State of Israel which, according to negationists, wishes to dominate the world. Underlines the danger of ideological corruption of anti-racism, used politically for contrary aims. HV

Terpotitz, Gunther: "Wahrheit macht frei": Systemverharmlosungs- und Rechtfertigungs-literatur zum Nationalsozialismus zwischen 1945 und 1991 unter Beruecksichtigung oesterreichischer nationaler und rechtsextremer Medien.  Diss. , Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, 1991. 367 pp. Unseen.  Examines, also, expressions of antisemitism and Holocaust denial in the extright press.

Thoma, Clemens: Rassismus und Leugnung des Voelkermordes. Freiburger Rundbrief 2, 1 (1995) 1-5.

Discusses the campaign for and against the anti-racism law in Switzerland in the summer of 1994. The law prohibited public incitement to hatred or discrimination of persons or groups because of race, ethnicity, or religion; the propagation of ideologies directed against such groups; denial, trivialization, or justification of genocide; and discrimination in the delivery of services. Opponents argued that the law infringed on the rights of citizens. Their tactics included defamation of its supporters and of ethnic and racial groups, as well as relativization of the Holocaust. Thanks to cooperation between Christian and Jewish leaders, the plebiscite approved the law, though by a narrow margin. RW

Vidal Manzanares, Cesar: La revision del Holocausto. Madrid: Anaya; Mario Muchnik, 1994. 208 pp.

A general survey of the main authors of historical revisionism and Holocaust denial, from Paul Rassinier to Fred Leuchter and Ernst Zundel. Analyzes eaone's views and presents the true historical facts as they are documented. Pp. 155-165 discuss the revisionism of two Spanish-language authors: Salvador Borrego and Joaquin Bochaca. States that all revisionist rhetoric is but manipulation and propaganda echoing antisemitic and neo-Nazi feelings. AA

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: Les assassins de la memoire: "Un Eichmann de papier" et autres essais sur le revisionnisme. Paris: La Decouverte, 1987. 232 pp.

A collection of articles, some published previously, on Holocaust denial. Contents: Un Eichmann de papier [First published in "Esprit" 9 (1980); see the abstract for the abridged Hebrew version: "Zmanim" 18-19 (1985).] (11-92); De Faurisson et de Chomsky (93-103); Du cote des persecutes (104-107); Theses sur le revisionnisme (108-133); Les assassins de la memoire [See the abstract for the Italian translation: "Qualestoria" 19 (1991).] (134-187). HV

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: The Assassins of Memory. Tel-Aviv: Am Oved, 1991. 354 pp.]  Originally published as "Les assassins de la memoire" (Paris: La Decouverte, 1987). (In Hebrew)

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: Assassins of Memory: Essays on the Denial of the Holocaust. Trans. & introd.: Jeffrey Mehlman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. xxv, 205 pp.  Originally published as "Les assassins de la memoire: `Un Eichmann de papier' et autres essais sur le revisionnisme" (Paris: La Decouverte, 1987).

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: Eichmann , a Paper Tiger? Zmanim 18-19 (Sum 1985) 110-124.]  First published in French in "Esprit" 9 (1980). (In Hebrew)

A polemic against revisionist historians who deny the Holocaust, particularly Robert Faurisson. Takes issue with and quotes extensively from the book by Serge Thion, "Verite historique ou verite politique? Le dossier de l'affaire Faurisson" (Paris: La Vieille Taupe, 1980) in which Thion argues for an objective evaluation of Faurisson's claims.

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: Gli assassini della memoria. Qualestoria 19, 2-3 (Aug-Dec 1991) 5-55.  Originally published in French in his collection "Les assassins de la memoire" (Paris: La Decouverte, 1987).

Discusses different historical approaches to the Holocaust, among them the intentionalist-functionalist theories, the German "historians' debate," historical revisionism, and Holocaust denial. Focuses on the French revisionists, such as Robert Faurisson and Paul Rassinier, as well as on the extreme left group and publishing house La Vieille Taupe, led by Pierre Guillaume, which denies the extermination of the Jews on the grounds of the Nazis' economic need for manpower. Also refers to attempts to compare Nazi war crimes with Israel's policy towards Palestinians. AA

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre: Gli ebrei, la memoria e il presente. Roma: Editori Riuniti, 1985. 314 pp.  Originally published as "Les Juifs, la memoire et le present" (Paris: Francois Maspero, 1981).

A translation of previously published articles on Jewish history and contemporary problems. Pp. 195-255, "Un Eichmann di carta" [first published in French in "Esprit" 9 (1980) , see the abstract for the abridged Hebrew version: "Zmanim" 18-19 (1985)], and three appendixes (pp. 257-305) discuss the Holocaust revisionism of Faurisson, Rassinier, Thion et al. Exposes their use of false information. Analyzes the principles and working methods of revisionist historians and the ideologies of German nationalism, neo-Nazism, anti-communism, anti-Zionism, and antisemitism that guide them. AA

Vigod, B.L.: When the System Fails: The Malcolm Ross Case in New Brunswick. Review of Anti-Semitism in Canada = Rapport sur l'Antisemitisme au Canada (1987) 28-34, 28-34.  In English and French.

Malcolm Ross, a schoolteacher in Moncton, New Brunswick, published a book in 1978 entitled "Web of Deceit," expressing Holocaust denial and Jewish conspiracy theories. Despite complaints by Dr. Julius Israeli, a Holocaust survivor, the province's Attorney-General and the local school board refused to act, claiming that there was no legal basis to prosecute Ross and no evidence that he was teaching his theories. Ross published two more books and antisemitic letters in the local newspaper, which ceased after complaints from Jewish organizations. At the end of 1985, the new Attorney-General, David Clark, reexamined Israeli's complaint but decided not to prosecute because of opposition of local Jewish bodies and the unavailability of "Web of Deceit." However, the book was obtainable at local libraries, and a press statement by Ross resulted in a shift in Jewish opinion. The Canadian League of Rights stated that there was sufficient evidence to convict, and pressed for an educational campaign against Ross. Non-Jewish bodies, especially the Churches, were also outraged, and a CBS radio documentary indicated that complaints against Ross's teaching were known to the school board. The Attorney-General still refused to prosecute (in 1987), fearing an acquittal and an increase in antisemitism. Despite public protest, interest in the case has waned, showing that officials and the local media in New Brunswick are reluctant to take on divisive issues. LF

Weimann, Gabriel; Winn, Conrad: Hate on Trial: The Zundel Affair, the Media, and Public Opinion in Canada. Oakville, Ont.: Mosaic Press, 1986. 201 pp.

Report of a national survey following the trial of neo-Nazi Ernst Zundel in Toronto in March 1985. Zundel was tried for promoting hatred against the Jews by distributing the pamphlet "Did Six Million Really Die?" Before the trial, concern was expressed regarding its effects on public opinion , the dangers of providing a public platform for hatemongers and the consequences of a possible acquittal. The trial ended in a conviction , Zundel was sentenced to fifteen months in jail. [The conviction was later overturned on appeal , ed.] The survey examined the impact of the trial on feelings towards Jews, Germans, and the Holocaust, the role of the media, and previously-held prejudices of the respondents. The results show that the trial did not engender support for Zundel's views, particularly because the people most susceptible to his views were not regular consumers of media news and were not even aware of the trial. Media reports increased awareness of the Holocaust and aroused sympathy for Jews, but also persuaded Canadians that Zundel's ideas have a following. Pp. 167-177 contain the design of the survey sample (1,054 subjects) and the questionnaire. EG

Weinberg, Henry H.: "Revisionism": The Roques Affair. Midstream 33, 4 (Apr 1987) 11-13.

Remarks on the preference of the "French school" of Holocaust deniers for pseudo-literary interpretation. Henri Roques' doctoral dissertation employed textual criticism in an attempt to invalidate SS officer Kurt Gerstein's deposition on Belzec. Detailed analysis of the thesis and a recording of its defense demonstrate how Roques' flawed research methods were used to cast doubt on the extermination of Jews in gas chambers (see below, no. 1375). four professors of the University of Nantes who approved the thesis were either active in or sympathizers of the French extreme-right. The Roques scandal exposed widespread antisemitic trends in French university circles and the media, and was presented by the Right as an attack by the "Jewish lobby" on the Front National. Le Pen and circles close to him have also made statements relativizing the Holocaust. Left-wing anti-Zionism on the campuses may have helped to legitimize revisionism. AA

Wellers, Georges: A propos d'une these de doctorat "explosive" sur le "Rapport Gerstein." Le Monde Juif 121 (Jan-Mar 1986) 1-18.

Analyzes the doctoral thesis of Henri Roques [awarded by the University of Nantes in 1985 and nullified in 1988 , ed.] which denied the authenticity of the report made in 1945 by SS officer Kurt Gerstein on his visit to the gas chamber in Belzec in 1942. Despite his exhaustive (and useful) comparisons of the different versions of the report, Roques used typical techniques of Holocaust denial, such as exploiting minor contradictions in details or claiming that the material was obtained under torture, in order to discredit the authenticity of the whole. Includes examples from Roques' work. See response and other material which appeared in the following issue of "Le Monde Juif." LF

Wellers, Georges: A propos du "rapport Leuchter" et les chambres a gaz d'Auschwitz. Le Monde Juif 134 (Apr-June 1989) 45-53.

During the appellative trial of Ernst Zundel in Toronto (1988), the accused and Robert Faurisson invited Fred A. Leuchter, Jr., a Boston specialist on execution by gas, to prove the impossibility of using the Auschwitz gas chambers for mass murder. Emphasizes the frequently absurd interpretations of the data collected in the report by Leuchter on his examination of the remainders of the gas chambers. Leuchter contended that it was technically impossible to kill so many people by gas in that place. The report was used, unsuccessfully, by Zundel who was sentenced to nine months in jail. LV

Wellers, Georges: L'"Affaire Roques" devant le Tribunal Administratif de Nantes. Le Monde Juif 130 (Apr-June 1988) 93-95.

After the annulment of Henri Roques' doctoral degree in 1986 by the University of Nantes on the basis of procedural irregularities, Roques' appeal was formally rejected. Shows how Roques' lawyer distorted the opinions of two French personalities, Alain Decaux and Michel de Bouard, who had allegedly endorsed Roques' thesis denying the existence of the gas chambers in the extermination camps. Both have, however, clarified their position, denying any such intention. AA

Wellers, Georges: Chambres a gaz au camp d'Auschwitz-Birkenau par le general Andre Rogerie. Le Monde Juif 125 (Jan-Mar 1987) 3-14.

Presents two texts by Rogerie which provide eye-witness evidence of the existence of gas chambers at the death camps. Rogerie, a young French student, was arrested in 1943 and interned in Auschwitz-Birkenau between April 1944-January 1945. The second text is based on a book he wrote immediately after his release, which was published in a limited edition in 1946. Pp. 9-14 contain comments by Wellers explaining how Rogerie's evidence contradicts the claims of Robert Faurisson. AA

Wellers, Georges: Der "Leuchter-Bericht" ueber die Gaskammern von Auschwitz: Revisionistische Propaganda und Leugnung der Wahrheit. Dachauer Hefte 7 (Nov 1991) 230-241.  Appeared in French in "Le Monde Juif" 134 (1989).

Wellers, Georges: Qui est Robert Faurisson? Le Monde Juif 127 (July-Sept 1987) 94-116.

A denunciation of Faurisson's revisionism and denial of the existence of the gas chambers, refuting his arguments one by one on the basis of Nazi documents. These leave no doubt about the meaning of the coded official vocabulary used to describe extermination. Charges Faurisson with deliberately ignoring important witnesses to the existence of the gas chambers and misleading the public about chemical and medical phenomena related to the perpetration of the Holocaust. AA

Weusthoff, Anja: Holocaust und Strafjustiz. Die Neue Gesellschaft , Frankfurter Hefte 42, 4 (Apr 1995) 359-364.

Discusses German legislation concerning Holocaust denial. Recalls that the German judicial system was slow in prosecuting war criminals, although the few important trials that were carried through were of educational value. The issue of Holocaust denial was first raised in the 1960s, and was dealt with by laws making it a punishable offense to arouse hatred against a population group or to insult individuals belonging to it. The inadequacy of these laws was shown in 1994 in the case of Guenter Deckert, who was acquitted in his first trial because it could not be proven that his denial of the Holocaust was intended to denigrate the Jews. The Bundestag then adopted an amendment making Holocaust denial in itself a punishable offense. Questions the effectiveness of such a law, suggesting that a democratic exchange of views is the best way to overcome falsification. RW

Whine, Michael: Anti-Semitism and Holocaust Denial in the Internet Era. Justice 13 (June 1997) 21-26.

The Internet is used by far right antisemitic hate groups for internal communication and for propaganda aimed at the general public. Antisemitism and Holocaust denial are links which bind many of the far right groups throughout the world. Describes use of the Internet by antisemites and anti-Western, antisemitic Islamists. Discusses recent measures to counter racism, Holocaust denial, and antisemitism on the Internet. REK

Whine, Michael: The Far Right on the Internet. The Governance of Cyberspace: Politics, Technology and Global Restructuring, ed. Brian D. Loader. London: Routledge, 1997. Pp. 209-227.  Unseen.

Discusses, also, the Far Right's use of the Internet to disseminate material denying the Holocaust, antisemitic hate-mail, racist computer games, etc.

Wiesenfeld, Sheila: The Roots of Hatred: Antisemitism and the Denial of the Holocaust. Montreal: [The Author], 1994. iii, 59 pp.  Based on the author's M.A. thesis , Concordia University, Montreal.

Ch.1 (pp. 1-15) traces the history of antisemitism from ancient times until the Second World War. The rest of the book summarizes arguments of Holocaust deniers (Rassinier, Faurisson, App, Christopherson, Harwood, Butz). Points to the connection between historical revisionism, modern antisemitism, and anti-Zionism. DR

Wolkoff, Kathleen Nietzke: The Problem of Holocaust Denial Lierature in Libraries. Library Trends 45, 1 (Sum 1996) 87-96.

Discusses the question of inclusion of Holocaust denial literature in library collections in light of the American Library Association's recently adopted "Library Bill of Rights" which includes the tenet "Librarians should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues." Librarians have taken three philosophical positions on this thorny issue: for inclusion, to uphold the principle of intellectual freedom; for exclusion, because librarians have a duty not to mislead the people they serve; inclusion with a note warning the reader about the dubious content of the material. Argues against allowing librarians to make judgments about the factual accuracy of materials. Recommends, rather, that Holocaust denial literature be included in collections

(mainly in academic and research libraries) along with works refuting them. SSC

Yagil, Limor: Holocaust Denial in France: Analysis of a Unique Phenomenon. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, Project for the Study of Antisemitism, 1994. 79 pp.

Examines the development of the revisionist movement in France in the postwar period. Dwells on the personalities and the ideas of Maurice Bardeche, Paul Rassinier, and Robert Faurisson; mentions numerous other, more contemporary, Holocaust deniers and trivializers, such as Henri Roques and Pierre Guillaume. In the last decade, denial and trivialization of the Holocaust has gradually become an accepted idea, deeply rooted in the national culture. Although the radical right adopted Holocaust denial as part of its ideology, this phenomenon is in no way limited to the right-wing: many revisibelong now to the radical left, Catholic integrist, and some other camps. Most of the exponents of Holocaust denial in France are apolitical intellectuals, and the phenomenon is much more cultural than political, albeit no less dangerous. Pp. 1-15 contain a translation of the lecture "Who Are the Assassins of Memory?," delivered by Pierre Vidal-Naquet in Jerusalem in 1992. DR

Yelland, Linda M.; Stone, William F.: Belief in the Holocaust: Effects of Personality and Propaganda. Political Psychology 17, 3 (Sept 1996) 551-562.  Unseen.

A study of the effects of Holocaust denial propaganda on American college students.

Author Index

 |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H|I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V|W |X |Y|Z|

Abramowicz, Manuel
Allen, Charles R., Jr.
Aronsfeld, Caesar C.
Ayass, Wolfgang

Bailer, Josef
Bailer-Galanda, Brigitte
Barkun, Michael
Bastian, Till
Bauer, Yehuda
Bell, Andrew
Benz, Wolfgang
Berghe, Gie van den
Boehler, Ingrid
Boehme, Joern
Bonifas, Aime
Braham, Randolph L.
Broszat, Martin

Capitanchik, David
Caplan, Marc
Carb, Alison B.
Cass, Mike
Chombart de Lauwe, Marie-Jose
Clarke, Tamsin
Collotti, Enzo
Comte, Bernard
Constantinescu, Ioan
Cotler, Irwin

Dalrymple, James
Davies, Alan Trewartha
Desbuissons, Ghislaine
Dietzsch, Martin
Douglas, Lawrence
Dworkin, Ronald

Eilati, Naftali
Einhorn, Maurice
Elliott, Mark
Erb, Rainer

Feingold, Henry L.
Fischel, Jack R.
Foxman, Abraham H.
Francq, Henry G.
Frank, Robert
Fresco, Nadine
Freund, Florian
Friedman, Violeta
Friedlaender, Saul
Funkenstein, Amos

Genovese, Eugene
Giordano, Ralph
Goodman, Arthur
Gottschalk, Alfred Y.
Graml, Hermann
Greene, Wallace
Gross, John
Gutman, Yisrael

Halter, Marek
Haupt, Peter I.
Hayward, Joel Stuart
Henke, Klaus-Dietmar
Hentges, Gudrun
Hill, Leonidas Edwin
Himmelfarb, Milton
Hirsch, Herbert4
Hockenos, Paul
Hodara, Raquel
Holz, Klaus
Huang, Li-Ning
Huerta, Carlos C.

Inowlocki, Lena

Jaeckel, Eberhard
Jakobovits, Immanuel
Jones, Jeremy
Jones, Mitchell

Kakutani, Michiko
Kaplan, Jeffrey
Kashtan, Rivka
Kaspi, Andre
Kaye, Ephraim
Kempfert, Guy
Kirk, H. David
Klarsfeld, Serge
Knoller, Rivkah
Kornberg, Jacques
Kovacs, Andras
Kraus-Vilmar, Dietfrid
Kuehner, Claudia
Kuehnl, Reinhard
Kulka, Erich
Kuttner, Paul

Labedz, Leo
Landesman, Betty
Lasek, Wilhelm
Leibler, Isi J.
Levi, Primo
Levi Della Torre, Stefano
Lichtenstein, Heiner
Lipstadt, Deborah Esther
Lopez, Guido
Luzzatto Voghera, Gadi

MacKenzie, Ian
Maegerle, Anton
McClintock, Michael
Meier, Horst
Melchior, Ib
Mendelsohn, Oskar
Mensdorf, Alexander
Miele, Frank
Milza, Pierre
Molinari, Maurizio
Morawek, Elisabeth
Mueller, Elfriede

Nadler, Arie
Najarian, James
Nebbia, G.
Nefsky, Marilyn Felcher
Neugebauer, Wolfgang
Nicault, Catherine

Obermueller, Klara
Ozick, Cynthia

Paetzold, Kurt
Passauer, Paul
Peretz, Martin
Persitz, Helene
Petropoulos, Jonathan
Picciotto Fargion, Liliana
Podhoretz, Norman
Porat, Dina
Pressac, Jean-Claude
Price, Vincent

Rabinbach, Anson
Redeker, Robert
Rembiszewski, Sarah
Rodriguez Jimenez, Jose Luis
Roth, Stephen J.
Rotenstreich, Nathan
Rousso, Henry
Rubenstein, Philip
Rubinstein, Hilary L.

Sarfati, Georges Elia
Scher, D.M.
Schoeps, Julius Hans
Schloer, Joachim
Schwartz, Alan M.
Schwarz, Johann
Seidel, Gill
Shapiro, Shelly
Sher, Neal M.
Shermer, Michael
Shields, James G.
Silets, H.L.
Silverberg, Mark
Simonelli, Frederick James
Sitman, David
Sleeper, James
Smith, Tom W.
Sneed, Christine
Soutou, Georges-Henri
Spann, Gustav
Spier, Howard
Stanley, Jerry
Stauber, Roni
Stauffer, Suzanne M.
Steinbach, Peter
Steinberg, Maxime
Steininger, Rolf
Steininger, Sigrid
Stengers, Jean
Stern, Kenneth S.
Stone, William F.
Sznajder, Mario

Tadmor-Shimony, Tali
Taguieff, Pierre-Andre
Terpotitz, Gunther
Tewksbury, David
Thoma, Clemens

Ueberschaer, Gerd R.

Vidal Manzanares, Cesar
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre
Vigod, B.L.

Wegner, Werner
Weimann, Gabriel
Weinberg, Henry H.
Wellers, Georges
Werner, Karl Ferdinand
Weusthoff, Anja
Whine, Michael
Wiesenfeld, Sheila
Wiesenthal, Simon
Winn, Conrad
Wistrich, Robert Solomon
Wolkoff, Kathleen Nietzke

Yagil, Limor
Yelland, Linda M.